AMERICAN HISTORY 1
Constantineestablished the city of Byzantium as the new capital ofConstantinople which led to the splitting of the empire into West andEast Empires. The Western empire crumbled during the Middle Ages whenthe population at the urban centers as well as trade declined atthis point knowledge of the classical era was lost in Western Europe.On the other hand the Eastern Empire continued to flourish and theknowledge was retained.
Reintroduction of classical knowledge into the Western Europe fuelledrenaissance which marked the end of the middle ages and beginning ofour modern period. This classical knowledge was influential becauseit led to rediscovery and realistic depiction of the human form.
Reformationled to literacy because printing was now easily accessible, thechurch did not encourage reading of the Bible but now printing wasavailable making the Bible available to everyone. Literacy led to thequestioning of the theology of Catholicism which resulted in thequestioning of the religious authority of the church by the people.
Asubsistence economy is an economic system that is reliant on thecommunity for its provisions it depends on natural resources renewaland reproduction for survival. On the other hand surplus economiesare dependent on monies for production and usually not for basicneeds but for the extras. Spanish colonialists brought about surpluseconomies by introducing a new working system which involved arduouslabor and abandonment of the subsistence economies that thecommunities were used to. The economy was aimed at being a surpluseconomy rather than a subsistence one with the increase inindustrialization.
Theencomienda system was popular in the Roman Empire where the weak wereused to provide services to those who had authority. The king decidedto bring it to an end because it was a menace to the natives of thenation. The natives were ill-treated and they were exposed todiseases such as measles which led to their deaths and decline intheir populations.
Theindictment of the Black Legend was justified as the Spanish cultureand behavior was cruel towards the Indians in the new world. Theiracts were corrupt, barbaric and intolerant. Bartolomé de las Casaswas right to conclude that both slavery and conquests were wrong. Hewas also right about the virtual slave conditions and the oppressionthat the Native Americans went through during that time.
Themajor controversies included parliamentary legislation and privilegewhich revolved around its nature and functions. Essentiallyparliament had the character of the court and its major concerns werefinances and justice. Religion was also another major controversywhereby tensions were growing between different beliefs.Controversies about purgatory were most intense during the reign ofHenry and theological debates continued during the Mary’s reign.The controversies continue to affect the American colonies to todaygiven that there is no agreement as to what religion isauthoritative.
Thedifferences included the citizens of New England being religious andperceived themselves as more Godly than other colonialists. Theyestablished the Anglican Church which had fewer participants.
TheChesapeake’s economy was majorly based in the tobacco industrywhich made a way for other industries. This tobacco raised enoughcapital to import servants who would increase its production. In NewEngland it was done in small scale and it involved fishing, shipbuilding and farming. This was because religion focused on familytheir plantations were just huge enough to feed their family.
Theone drop rule refers to a racial classification of the Negros. It’sa legal principle that provided that any individual with even oneancestor form the sub-Saharan Africa would be considered black. Inessence all children of female slaves inherited the status of slaverydespite the father’s status. This racial classification led to thebelief that racism is a reality and that some races are superior toothers.
TheBritish colonies in America were unable to defeat the French due tomany reasons including un-cooperation with their commanders in chief,leaked information about their plans as well as poor militarypreparation the British were also outnumbered by the French.
Creolepatriotism depicts love for one’s fatherland or passion for one’snation it’s a concept that was developed by the Spanish.Nationalism and patriotism was the key motivation of the Britainempire which ultimately paid off through their victory. Creolepatriotism encouraged ones loyalty to their nation thus motivation towin the war.
TheAmerican Revolution was pushed by the Great Britain victory in thefollowing ways:
A sense of American political identity was instilled in the Americans which facilitated the revolution
Shouldering some of the financial costs of the empire by the American colonialists.
The clashes between the Americans and the Britons which brought about the tension
After the war Britain emerged as very powerful which led to the American Revolution
TheAmerican colonialist protested the taxation by the British on thejustification that they did not listen to the American complaints andthat their laws were unfair. The British said that the Americans hadto pay debts and hence the taxation on the British imports. TheBritish nevertheless did not heed to their demands.
Thenon-importation movements were campaigns against the British goods.This was a boycott that happened because of the slow trade and shortsupply of cash which led the merchants to be in debts. The movementswere successful as agreements were made which catered for theirconcerns.
Theleaders of the 13 colonies established governments known ascorrespondence of committees on the eve of the American Revolution.They promoted patriotism by giving free advice to the Americans onthe way they should live on their soil. They also helped inidentifying the disloyal people in the colonies.
Suffolkresolves was a declaration that rejected the Massachusetts GovernmentAct. It was made by the Suffolk leaders and it aided in avoidance ofa boycott of imported goods from the British. The first Continentalcongress adopted the declaration because it was like a replica of thedeclaration of rights and grievances that had been passed earlier bythe congress.
Theradicals had a belief that the revolution’s aim was to establish agovernment thus they were placed at the hands of the people theywere to give power to enable defense. Conservationists on the otherhand viewed the revolution as an opportunity to grab control of theforeign elite and put it in the hands of an American government. Boththe declaration of independence and the Olive Branch petition werepassed because the union believed in mutual defense.
Washingtonwas appointed as commander in chief by John Adams because he washighly qualified as well as a colonel. Additionally, he was highlyrespected as he was part of the inner circle of the government.
Thecalling of a confederacy by the Articles of Confederation whichplaced foreign powers in the hands of the states caused its failure.Additionally the national government was weak which led to economicdisorganization and legislative inefficiencies. These problems wereaddressed by the delegates by drafting a constitution which put inplace a federal government which was more powerful than the nationalgovernment.
Thefederalists in the federalist versus the anti-federalists debatewanted the ratification of the constitution while the antifederalistsopposed it. The federalists contended that there should be a powerfulfederal government which would unite all the States. Theanti-federalists contended that the constitution gave the centralgovernment so much power and lack of a bill of rights would lead topeople’s misery and that each state should have its own sovereignand independent government.