AMERICAN HISTORY 1
Thesplitting of the empire into halves between the east and west was asa result of the Constantine who established the city of Byzantium asthe new capital of Constantinople. There were expenditures which wereincurred especially on the military. However the crumble of thewestern empire was preceded by the High Middle Ages. During this timethere was population decline especially in urban centers, declined Itrade when the knowledge of the classical era was lost. The periodwas referred to as “dark ages”. In the Eastern Empire, theByzantine Empire continued to flourish as they retained the classicalera knowledge.
There-introduction of classical knowledge into Western Europe wasinfluential because there was easier access to the east due to thetraffic which was also inclusive of the Latin empire. The conquest ofConstantinople by the Ottoman Empire made the Greek manuscripts tohave their way into Europe which increased renaissance.
Thereformation was as a result of the action taken by Martin Luther whois well recognized for his criticism against the catholic theology.He viewed the pope as a person who lacked the power over purgatory.The main reason behind this was changes in theology brought about byliteracy, nationalism and corruption of the Roman curia. Theintroduction of literacy led to the questioning of the traditionalviews and practices by the citizens.
Asubsistence economy is an economy in which people produce their ownfood, clothes and other things for their own survival this economyis non-monetary and it relies on natural resources for basic needsprovisions. Surplus economies are industrialized economies where byemphasis is on production surplus production over basic needs. Colonial Spanish introduced surplus economies to their conquests andstarted dictating the compulsory work, working conditions and thewages to be paid.
Theencomienda system began in Spain during the Roman Empire where theweak were used to provide services to those who protected them. Thecrown would give individual natives of a particular community. Inreturn they would take charge in the protection from warring tribesand pirates. The king decided to end this system because it wasdangerous to the native populations. They were ill-treated and wereexposed to diseases such as small pox and measles which had noimmunity and as a result the Indians died in large populations.
Theblack legend was a style of writing that destroyed the Spanish empirewhich was oppressive to the Natives Americans in the new world. Inorder to damage its reputation, there were various scholars who wroteon his indictment. Philip Wayne describes it as an “a religious andpolitical propaganda that blackened the characters of Spaniard andtheir ruler to such an extent that Spain became the symbol of allforces of repression. Bartolome de las casas was a historian whofocused on the acts done by the colonizers against the indigenouspeoples. He was right about fighting slavery and torture of theindigenous people and advocated for humane policy of colonization.
Themain issues included Parliamentary nature and legislation.Fundamentally, parliament had the character of the court and itsmajor trepidations were finances and justice. There were advocateswho presented the privileges of the clergy to the laity who werehostile to the theology of Rome. At this point, the pope was afraidof Emperor Charles and Henry and the lawyers advised that parliamentcouldn’t empower the archbishop to act against the pope’sprohibition. Religion was also another major controversy wherebytensions were growing between different beliefs. Controversies aboutpurgatory were most intense during the reign of Henry and theologicaldebates continued during the Mary’s reign.
Thedifferences included the citizens of New England being religious andperceived themselves as more Godly than other colonialists. Theyestablished the Anglican Church which had fewer participants.
TheChesapeake’s economy was majorly based in the tobacco industrywhich made a way for other industries. This tobacco raised enoughcapital to import servants who would increase its production. In NewEngland it was done in small scale and it involved fishing, shipbuilding and farming. This was because religion focused on familytheir plantations were just huge enough to feed their family.
Onedrop rule provides that that any person with even one ancestor ofsub-Saharan ancestry is considered a Negro. It differentiated theslavery in various parts of America in that American Indians werebelieved to comprise of white father and Indian mother. Mixed racechildren were believed to be of the community if they are raised inthe culture. Its perception is that race was a foundation factor andit defined one’s ability and status quo.
Britainhad dully participated in the seven years which was the leadingcolonial power. However its colonies were unable to defeat the Frenchbecause the war began badly in Britain. There was a huge loss oflives due to the plague and scurvy in America. In that same yearBritain’s buddy switched sides and aligned itself with France.Britain was therefore force to end a new alliance with Fredrick thegreat Prussia.
Creolepatriotism is a concept that is meant to bring awareness to one’sidentity it was developed by the Spanish. Nationalism and patriotismof the Great Britain led to their victory in the great war where theconcept played a big role in their plans. The significance of creolepatriotism is that it gave the nation confidence to pursue theirprojects.
TheBritish victory facilitated the American Revolution in the followingways:
The victory was gained through tireless efforts and a lot of costs were incurred. Therefore the London government struggled after 1763 to compel the American colonialists to shoulder some of the financial costs of empire.
The change in Britain colonial policy ensured an emerging sense of American political identity which enabled to precipitate the American Revolution.
The clash between the Americans and Britons facilitated the establishment of a new nation.
The victory in the war made Britain to be perceived as the master of an enlarged imperial domain.
Thejustification used by the American colonialists in relation totaxation by the British was that the British parliament did not careabout the complaints made by the Americans that the laws were unfair.Nevertheless, British did not respond to the American demands forchange which made the colonialists to be more corrupt and threatentheir liberties. The British response was that they justified directtaxation through the request that Americans had to pay for the debtsincurred when they purchased British imports.
Thenon-importation movements were the movements made by the Americans inorder to resist unpopular and unfair British policies. An example isthe Boston Non-Importation Agreement which was made by the Bostonmerchants and traders in order to resist imports and exports of goodsto Britain. These movements were successful because the Americanswere united to resist exploitation by the British. Consequently,there was smuggling of British goods which made it easy and a cheapermeans of acquiring British taxed goods. This made it easier to resistand undermine British policies.
Thecommittees of correspondence were governments established by thepatriot leaders of the thirteen colonies during the eve of theAmerican Revolution. They promoted patriotism through giving adviceto Americans in order to avoid luxuries and lead simple’s lives.They also set up networks in order to identify disloyal elements andhelp topple the entire imperial system in each colony.
Itwas a declaration made by the Suffolk leaders of Boston. Thisdeclaration rejected Massachusetts Government Act and it helped avoida boycott of imported goods from British unless the acts wererepealed. The resolves were recognized by Edmund as a developmentwhich led to the United States declaration.
Theradicals believed the aim of the revolution was to establish agovernment hence they were placed at the hands of the people. Theywere to interpret the confederation as a past union and give power toenable defense. Conservatives viewed the revolution as an opportunityto evade control from foreign elite and place it at the hands of thecentralized government in America. They both believed in mutualdefense but they wanted the union to manage all the activities of theunion.
Whatmotivated john Adams to nominate Washington as a commander was thatWashington was a colonel and highly qualified. He was also part ofthe inner circle and was highly respected. This made him to be thebest man suitable for that job.
Thearticles of confederation failed because of the fact that it calledfor a confederacy which placed sovereign powers in the hands of thestates, consequently there was lack of strong national governments inthe articles of confederation which led to legislativeinefficiencies, insufficient central leadership and economicdisorganization. Delegates addressed these problems by drafting aconstitution which addressed many of the problems created by thearticles by creating a federal system of government which was morepowerful than the national government. The system had the power totax, draft and control interstate commerce.
Thedebate consisted of two sides, the federalists and anti-federalists.The federalists wanted to ratify the constitution while theanti-federalists did not. The two debated on the bill of rights andthe federalists were of the opinion that there should be a creationof a strong federal government. The anti-federalists claimed theconstitution gave the central government too much power and lack ofthe bill of rights would lead to oppression of the people and thateach state should have its own sovereign and independent government.