Artificial Intelligence, AI refers to the science of creatingintelligent machines. The machines are able to perform human tasks ina better and fast way (Harris 2011, 6). AI is also described as theimprovement of computer systems, which are capable of performingtasks that would otherwise be accomplished by human intelligence. Theuse of artificial intelligence has aroused much debate worldwide.Some people are concerned about the advantages and effectiveness ofartificial intelligence. Others are concerned as to whether AI iscapable of acting as a replacement to humans.
Considering the many benefits and applications of AI, the followingdiscussion argues that artificial intelligence should replace humanintelligence.
AI has been an important component in the developed world. It hasbeen widely used in various fields such as aviation, themanufacturing industry, computer gaming industry and thecommunication industry. For years, scientists have endeavored todetermine how humans think. They have also been interested insearching for advanced ways to enhance human thinking resulting inAI. Artificial intelligence is associated with a mathematician, JohnMcCarthy, who believed in the possibility of making machines that,could reason in the same way as humans (Harris 2011, 7). He broughttogether different thinkers to research on the possibilities of AI.McCarthy was positive that artificial intelligence had the capabilityof altering how individuals live and the way society operates (Harris2011, 7). Years later, AI has transformed from a mere idea and is nowwidely applied in society.
The technology is used in performing both basic and complex tasks.An illustration of basic AI use is the use of calculators. People usecomputers to perform and solve math-based problems. Using the device,a user is able to key in large figures and gives commands to thecalculator to either, add, multiply or divide the figures among othercommands. Humans are also able to perform such calculations. However,for a human being, one will be required to write down the figures anddo the calculations manually. Such a process is not only tasking, buttime consuming and enhances the possibility of errors. On the otherhand, the computer is able to solve a math problem almost instantly.The speed of the calculator is remarkable, plus it reduces humanerror, which makes it a better alternative to human intelligence.
Another basic AI system is computer programs. Computers have becomea necessity in life. All professions rely on computers to eitherperform basic or complex tasks. A historic success in artificialintelligence was the creation of “ELIZA” (Harris 2011, 12). Itwas a computer program, which had the capability to provide responseto information keyed into the computer. Computer programs, just likecalculators, make work easier and fast. They are specificallyimportant in the mechanical engineering industry. Mechanicalengineers are responsible for the designing of automation structures,robotics and machines of different kinds. Years before artificialintelligence was discovered, engineers would use drafting boards,pencils and erasers to make new designs. But now, with artificialintelligence, they are able to get their jobs done fast andaccurately due to the use of computer-aided engineering programs(Wickert and Lewis 2016, 16). The programs are used in performingcalculations and creating technical drawings in better ways thanhumans.
Artificial intelligence is used to complete a number of applicationsin the apparel industry. The industry is very significant in economicdevelopment by producing what individuals wear. The creation ofapparel begins with designing, followed by manufacturing and laterretailing. At each of these stages, AI is used. In the design stage,computer-aided systems are employed to enhance production andquality. The system primarily focuses on the designing of patterns.The systems avail operation platforms that can be employed by appareldesigners in the creation of apparel designs (Guo, Wong, Leung and Li2011, 1873). During the manufacturing phase, paper patterns are usedin tracing a design onto the fabric prior to cutting. The patterndesigner transforms a 3D style to two-dimensional patterns.Conventionally, fabric designs would be created manually, where andapparel designer would draw the design on the fabric and then cut outthe needed design. However, with AI knowledge-based systems have beeninvented, which are used to robotically create fabric patterns (Guoet al. 2011, 1875). It is obvious that AI has enhanced fabric designsin manners that would not have been achieved through humanintelligence.
AI has also been applied in accounting databases. It is difficultfor humans to comprehend or process accounting databases that arecomputerized. This is because most databases focus on numeric data,which is difficult for humans to interpret (Pannu 2015, 82).Incorporating intelligent systems and accounting databases togethercan help in investigating huge amounts of data, which is achievedwith or without the involvement of humans. Hence, it is possible forthe AI systems to examine the data and help the users comprehend ordeduce transactions to establish the accounting events the systemcaptures (Pannu 2015, 82). Artificial intelligence stores andretrieves knowledge via natural language. It comprises of tools andmethods, which aid in the broader comprehension of what is capturedby an accounting system. By incorporating AI in accounting databases,the system place emphasis on text data and not just numeric data incapturing context. Such systems are fast and effective in dataevaluation than human intelligence.
The gaming field has also benefited from artificial intelligence.According to Pannu the most common uses of computer technology is toplay games (Pannu 2015, 82). As computer games continue to evolve,they have “grown from modest text based to the three dimensionalgraphical games with complex and large worlds” (Pannu 2015, 82).Hence, they have been able to provide the best entertainment tousers. Artificial intelligence is a very significant component ofeach computer game. It is impossible to play the games without AI.Removing AI from the games makes them simple and boring. This isbecause, the games will no longer be competitive as winning will beeasy. AI is employed in finding solutions to general problems withinthe games and in providing the needed features of a game. Artificialintelligence finds solutions to the problems of the movement,learning and decision making of the non-playing character (Russelland Norvig 2010, 122). In doing so, AI methods utilized are Bayesiannetworks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic (Pannu 2015, 83). As aresult, it is possible for one to buy a customized game like chess,which is capable of playing against people at several levels, whichinclude the master and amateurish level.
It is possible to use AI methods in close to all fields of medicine.For example fuzzy expert system is a method of data handling, whichallows uncertainty and is thus applicable in medical uses. The AIsystem captures and employs the idea of fuzziness in a way that iscomputationally effective. It is more likely to be utilized inmedical diagnosis (Pannu 2015, 81). A different AI techniqueapplicable in medicine is evolutionary computation. It is a generalword for various computational methods founded on natural evolutionprocesses, which emulates the methods of natural selection. The mostcommon applications of evolutionary computation in medicine aregenetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms have been used in theprediction of the outcome of chronically sick patients. In addition,genetic algorithms have been employed in MRI segmentation of tumorsto determine the effectiveness of treatment approaches. AI is alsoused to enhance inpatient care via the use of “clinical decisionsupport systems” (Pannu 2015, 81). The systems are used inidentification of bacteria that cause infections and suggestantibiotics, which can be used in treating the infections. Suchapplications are not as effective when performed by humanintelligence due to the high level of accuracy needed in medicine.
AI has been successfully used in vulnerability assessment of theMalaysian electrical powersystem. The security of networks thatsupply electricity has been a major factor in the advancement of theelectricity industry. A number of failure as well as major powerblackouts witnessed in America, Asian and European nations, signifiedthe requirement “for the vulnerability assessment of power systems”(Haidar, Mohamed, Hussain and Jaalam 2010, 5023). Currently, therehave been advances in power systems via progressive growth ininterconnection, application of advent technologies as well ascontrols. Because of increased operations that may lead to thestressing of power systems, it is crucial that power systemsvulnerability is assessed. The objective is to determine thecapability of a power system to progress providing services in theevent of unpredictable catastrophic emergency like failures incommunication and component, natural disaster and human errors(Haidar et al. 2010, 5023). Thus, precise vulnerability assessment iscrucial, which has been achieved through artificial intelligence. InMalaysia, AI is used in determining the vulnerability index thatcannot be assessed by humans. Humans are only capable of assessingvulnerability via approximating a power system’s security level.Contrary, AI puts into consideration not merely security informationrather, the entire system’s information.
Research also supports the use of AI tools in assessing the risk ofsewer condition (Sousa, Matos, Almeida and Saldanha 2014, 622). Thishas been successfully applied to the SANEST sewer system. In themanagement of wastewater, maintenance, operation as well asrehabilitation are the major concerns. Bearing in mind the servicesprovided by wastewater management systems, in addition to the traitsof the supporting infrastructure, technical issues are likely toarise. This is specifically the case in highly populated urbanregions, where wastewater management is handled by huge and agingnetworks. Hence, it is crucial to put into operation effectivemanagement systems. AI tools like “artificial neural networks andsupport vector machines for assisting the planning of operation andmaintenance activities of wastewater infrastructures” have provento be effective in enhancing wastewater management (Sousa et al.2014, 622).
Advances in AI have resulted in the creation of machines, such asrobots, which have the ability to perform the same functions ashumans (Khalil and Dombre 2004, 11). Robots replace the manual jobsdone by humans. They are more effective, because unlike humans whoare likely to get tired fast, the machines do not get tired. Inaddition, robots are fast and capable of working in places wherehumans cannot. For instance, when used in an industry where peopleare required to carry heavy goods, it is possible for the individualsto tire easily. As such productivity may decline. But with robots,one is guaranteed that they will continue to work without tiring andcarry more goods at once. This means that robots enhance the overallefficiency and output in manners that cannot be achieved by humans.Robots are also more flexible than human beings. They are capable ofperforming a number of different tasks.
Drawbacks of AI
Despite the many benefits and applications of AI, there aredrawbacks. In some industries, it is not possible to completelyreplace humans with AI. This is because humans are required to makecommands to the machines. Also, in the apparel industry, AI hasproven to be effective in improving fabric designs. However, researchshows that the AI systems used within the industry are limitedbecause they are incapable of automatically generating an appareldesign (Guo et al. 2011, 1974). The designer has to come up with thedesign and use the machine to create the design on fabric. Anotherlimitation of using AI in the apparel industry is that the technologyis incapable of differentiating the differences in fabric betweendifferent collections (Guo et al. 2011, 1875). Such differentiationcan only be done by humans. Research also indicates that emergingtechnologies in AI, while enhancing the speed and quality of tasks,and at the same time reducing costs, are likely to displace hugefigures of workers (Karsten and West 2015, 1).
However, as we continue to witness more developments in technology,it is likely that the problems associated with AI will be eliminated.For instance, the creation of machines, which are able to performtasks without the need for human intervention, will solve the currentproblem of AI machines. Such software developments will make itunnecessary for humans to operate the machines. In the case of theapparel industry, there are now machines that are able to detectsound and vision (Breazeal 2004, 61). The introduction of suchmachines in the industry will enhance the possibility for AI to beused in selecting fabric design of different colors. Machines canalso be used in detecting different designs and imprinting the samein fabric. Humans may not have to be displaced from work as they cantake up the roles of supervision or management.
There are many applications of AI. Artificially intelligent machinescontrast greatly to humans. The machines do not get tired likehumans. While human beings are likely to make errors, machines arevery accurate. AI can be used in performing not just many butdifferent tasks. Such multitasking is not achievable with humansespecially when the work involved is manual. Machines like robots areable to work in places where humans cannot, which make AI a betteralternative to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence is alreadyin use in many industries for performing both basic and complextasks. This means that many industries realize the significance ofAI. As more machines continue to be used and introduced inindustries, then AI should replace humans.
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