CawleyJ. and Meyerhoefer C. (2012). "The medical care costs ofobesity: An instrumental variables approach". Journalof Health Economics31 (1): 219–230.
Medicalcosts have been in the increase in the last few years mainly due toincreased demand and emerging health care conditions. Obesity is oneof the major contributors to the increased number of emergingconditions in the modern health care system. This article usesinstrumental variables to determine how the increased incidences ofobesity contribute to medical costs. The study was meant to deal withendogeneity of obesity and bias and errors associated with it inmedical reports. Majority of medical expenditure data haveunderestimated the cost of medical costs that is directly associatedwith obesity. Obesity is associated with a large number of chronicdiseases that has resulted into increased cost of medical services.The models used in the study based its cost estimated on the “MedicalExpenditure Panel Survey of 2000-2005”. The result of the studyrevealed that the medical cost of obesity has been underestimated inprevious literatures. These underestimations have had far reachingimpacts on funding of interventions to reduce medical externalitiesassociated with obesity.
Obesityis directly related to bad eating habit. Overindulgence in highlyprocessed foods, fats, sugars and other bad eating habits are themajor contributors to obesity. High medical costs associated withobesity can be attributed to bad eating habits. Therefore, thisarticle is essential because it provides the medical costs of badeating habits.
Althoughthe article argues that other literatures have underestimated medicalcosts associated with obesity, generally it supports the findings ofother articles. The rationale of the article is that obesity, whichis directly attributed to bad eating habits among other factors, hashuge impact on medical costs. The article is different from othersources because if addresses the financial and economic impact ofobesity, which is associated with bad eating habits.
Gerrits,J. H. et al (2010). Self-control, diet concerns and eater prototypesinfluence fatty foods consumption of adolescents in three countries.HealthEducation Research25(6) 1031-1041.
Increasedrate of obesity among teenagers in the modern society has evolvedinto a global problem. There are several factors that influence thechoices of food among adolescence. This article seeks to role of selfcontrol, diet concerns and eater prototypes in diet choices amongadolescents in different countries. The study established thatsimilar factors influence food choices among adolescents in differentcountries.
Thisarticle will be essential in this study because it investigateindividual and social factors that affect the choices of diet amongadolescents.
Thearticle is unique because it compares factors that influence dietchoices among adolescent in different countries. However, the articledoes not contradict the findings of other studies, but enhance theavailable knowledge on factors influencing diet choices.
Junger,M. & Kampen, M. (2010). Cognitive ability and self-control inrelation to dietary habits, physical activity and bodyweight inadolescents. IntJ Behav Nutr Phys Act.7(22),doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-22.
Overthe years, researches have established that cognitive abilities amongindividuals impacts on health status and mortality. However, thecauses of this unique relationship have been a mystery. With theincreased concerns about the increased incidences of obesity in theAmerican society, the influence of cognitive abilities on selfcontrol in relation to dietary choices and health living has been asubject of research. This article the role of cognitive abilitiesamong adolescence in self control and healthy eating habits amongother behaviors. The study established that cognitive ability has aninfluence on self control and thus eating habits among teenagers.
Thearticle will be very useful in the current study. It will beessential in identifying the role of self control and cognitiveabilities in adopting healthy diet among teenagers. The findings ofthe article will be important in developing a strategy to enhanceself control among teenagers in dietary choices.
Thearticle provides a different approach to the problem of bad eatinghabits among teenagers. This makes the article unique. Despite this,the article does not contradict the findings of other articlesconsidered in this study.
MarantzP. Bird E. & Alderman M. (2008). "A call for higherstandards of evidence for dietary guidelines". AmJ Prev Med34 (3): 234–40.
Dietis an important health status determinant. Thus, dietary guidelineshave been designed to deal with dietary excesses which are a majorcause of preventable diseases in the modern society. This articleargues that the guidelines have been based on scientific reasons and“weak evidence” that is indirect. The indirect evidence has beenused to support these guidelines. The article argues that guidelinesthat advocate for reduction of dietary fat have contributed toincreased prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Americansociety. The article explains why there has been a mistake in thedevelopment of these guidelines and proposes a better standard thatis supported by strong evidence.
Thearticle is important in the current study because it evaluates someof the dietary guidelines that are designed to guide individuals inmaking healthy diet choices. The article focuses on the negativeeffects of these guidelines.
Thearticle contradicts the arguments of other articles in the study.Majority of the studies have supported the results of studies thathave formed the bases of dietary guidelines. However, the articleargues that these guidelines have negative result and havecontributed to increased obesity and overweight incidences in theUnited States. This article is unique because it criticizes dietaryguidelines in the management of obesity.
Nikolaos,Katsilambros (2011). ClinicalNutrition in Practice.John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-4777-7.
Thechoice of diet and its social and health implication is a complextopic. The most important aspects of diet are the health implicationsof a healthy or unhealthy diet. The book by Nikolaos, Katsilambrosprovides a detailed and comprehensive overview of the role of diet inan individual’s health. The book defines healthy nutrition andclinical nutritional assessment and nutritional requirement forindividuals with special nutritional needs, mainly due to dietrelated medical conditions.
Thebook provides a general reference for the current study. The bookdefines the basic aspects of a healthy diet and the generalimplication of a healthy diet in a patient’s body.
Thebook does not contradict the finding of other articles in the study.However, it provides a clinical definition and interpretation of ahealthy diet. The book is different from other sources because itprovides a more detailed discussion based on multiple studies andexpert views.
SacksF. M. et al. (2009). "Comparison of weight-loss diets withdifferent compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates". N.Engl. J. Med.360 (9): 859–73.
Althoughthe role of diet in the development and treatment of obesity is notdebatable, an effective diet for the treatment of overweight has beena subject of intense debate. Some experts have emphasized onproteins, while others have emphasized on fats and carbohydrates. Thearticle reports the findings of a study that investigated the impactsof different diet on obese individuals. The aim of the study was todetermine the contents of an appropriate diet for management ofoverweight. Four diets which contained “20, 15, and 65% 20, 25,and 55% 40, 15, and 45% and 40, 25, and 35%” of fat, proteins andcarbohydrates respectively were assigned to over eight hundredoverweight adults. The study established that although allindividuals lost weight in the first year, diets that reduced theamount of calories has clinically significant weight loss.
Overweightis attributed to bad eating habit, among other factors. As a result,the diet plays an important role in the management and treatment ofoverweight. This article seeks to determine the most appropriate dietthat can be used to manage overweight. It is therefore useful in thecurrent study.
Thestudy in the article does not contradict other studies, but supportthe rationale that diet plays an important role in management andprevention of overweight. The study narrows down to identifying thecontent of the most appropriate diet in weight management. Thisarticle is unique because it analyses specific components of food andhow they impact on obese individuals.
WalkerC. (2009). "Diets for cardiovascular disease prevention: whatis the evidence?". AmFam Physician 79(7): 571–7.
Asa result of increased concerns on the impacts of obesity on thehealth of individual, especially cardiovascular diseases, there arepatient initiated dietary plans that have emerged. Some of theseplans are commercial dietary plans. This article compares some of themost common patient initiated dietary plans and their effectivenessbased on patient oriented outcomes and disease oriented outcomesdata. The plan analyzed includes “Atkins, Zone, Sugar Busters andSouth Beach”. Additionally, the article briefly outlines theAmerican Heart Association guidelines on healthy diet and itseffectiveness.
Thearticle provides essential information on the trends in patientinitiated dietary plans to deal with bad eating habits. The articlewill be useful in the development of a comprehensive that willpromote healthy eating habits. The article is important in the studybecause its main focus is patient initiatives towards a healthy diet.
Thearticle supports the findings of other articles in the study. Itsupports the fact that bad diet results into obesity, which isassociated with far reaching health problems. However, the articleprovides additional information on the effectiveness of some of thecommercial dietary plans. However, the article is unique compared toother sources because it provides a critique of commercial dietaryplans.
Wang,X. (2014). "Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality fromall causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review anddose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.” BMJ.349: g4490. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4490.
Cancersand cardiovascular diseases are the most important diseases in themodern world due to the large number of death attributed to them. Toprevent these chronic illnesses which have been on the increase inthe last few years, experts have recommended that people need toconsume more fruits and vegetables. There is evidence that increasedconsumption of fruits and vegetables has positive health outcomes.The objective of the study in this article was to quantify therelationship and potentials of increased vegetables and fruits in thediet and mortality rates associated with cancer and cardiovasculardiseases. The study relied on secondary data obtained from a widerange of libraries. Meta analysis of the data collected revealed thatincreased consumption of fruits and vegetable has positive healthoutcomes. It significantly reduces the risk of mortality as a resultof all causes studied. The article concurs with current expertrecommendations to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables toreduce the risk of cancers and cardiovascular diseases.
Thisarticle is very useful in the current study because it defines whatgood eating habits are. As a result of the positive externalitiesassociated with increased fruits and vegetables in the diet, a dietwith more vegetables and fruits has been considered to be healthier.This is because it reduces the health risks associated with anindividual’s diet.
Thisarticles due not contradict the findings of other sources. Thearticles support the findings and recommendation of other studiesthat recommend consumption of more fruits and vegetables. Thisarticle is unique because it provides the significance of diet richin fruits and vegetables in prevention of chronic diseases.