BRAZIL’S POLICY PRIORITIES 7
Brazil is an attractive nation, in South America. It is rich incultures, languages and customs. Brazil is the fifth largest countryinternationally. In addition, it ranks fifth as the most populous.
A prominent factor about Brazil is its cultural diversity. Thecountry is made up of the values and belief systems of Africans, thePortuguese and Amerindians, who come together to form an exceptionallifestyle for Brazilians (Samovar & Porter, 2003). It has twoimportant institutions, which are the family and church. Braziliansare mainly Roman Catholics. However, despite having the catholicheritage, the country emphasizes more on family. The great importanceplaced on families is because Brazilians live in a country wherepower is viewed as undependable, due to their colonial heritage.
Civilians have a high value for the family and relationships. Thefamily is very important because it provides the network of supportrequired to ensure every Brazilians belongs in the society. Theydepend on “parentela” referring to an individual’s nuclear orextended family, for counsel, any kind of support and assistance whenin trouble. The emphasis on family creates a sense of community inBrazil. As a result, Brazilians have a group orientation, wherebyidentity is determined by belonging to a specific family.
The country values personal relationships, such as friendships.Friendship results in an influential bond. However, relationshipsthat are formed when doing business demand a different kind ofinteraction hence, business is conducted in a polychromic way.Brazilians cultural values support tolerance, friendliness andreconciliation. The citizens are welcoming and charming. Directconfrontation is evaded to avoid the perception of an individual asunpleasant. In addition, Brazil values the common good of all peopledespite a lack of trust in government.
Position Supported in Policy Areas
Economic – the country’s economy is typified by reasonably freemarkets. Historically, Brazil employed the economic policy of importsubstitution. The objective was to make the country less reliant oncommodity exports (Loman, 2014). As a result, the country experiencedhigh levels of economic growth and was able to invest ininfrastructure. Despite the growth, inequality was widespread in thecountry. This resulted in policy changes and Brazil currently has amacroeconomic economic policy. It is applied via a monetary andfiscal policy. These policy forms are employed in making the economystable, which resonates to a boost in the economy. Brazil’s fiscalpolicy involves the government making alterations to how it spendswith the objective of encouraging growth. Money policy comprises ofalterations in the supply of money within the economy. The governmentsets laws and restrictions aimed at regulating or encouraging thecollective economic indicators. These indicators comprise ofinflation, interest rate, rate of unemployment, money supply andgrowth rate among others. The country frames its policies to achieveits macro objectives.
Political – historically, Brazil was ruled by the military, a rulethat came to an end in 1985. Currently, it has a democratic politicalpolicy, which is characterized by a presidential system. Thepresident is in charge of government and the state. Presidency is onfour-year tenure, and there is a probability of re-election for thepresident for a second tenure. In addition, the country has a federalsystem of government. Federalism in Brazil refers to policies thatare nationally designed (Pio, 2013). This means that states mustconsent to federal conditions imposed by the central government inorder to receive federal funds. Under federalism, power in dividedbetween Brazil’s central government and local governments.
Military – the country’s military is a merge of three branches.These are the Navy, Army and Air force (Bruha, 2014). The purpose ofthe military is to safeguard Brazil’s territory, its waters andairspace. The military is under the authority of the president. Inaccordance to Brazil’s law, it is compulsory for all men in thecountry to serve in the military, though conscientious objection ispermitted (Bruha, 2014). It is not mandatory for women or clergymento join the military. Service for men begins after their eighteenthbirthday, where they are required to enroll to the military and servefrom the age of nineteen. But, due to the high numbers of men thatenroll to the military, most are deferred. The military is alsoinvolved in peace keeping missions in other nations. Currently, thecountry’s military, in specific Brazil’s Army, is engaged incivic programs, healthcare and construction projects all over thecountry (Bruha, 2014).
Socio-cultural – Brazil has a unique socio-culture. Poverty iswidespread in the country, and there is a sharp difference betweenthe wealthy and the poverty stricken. Slums, commonly known as“favelas” are widespread in metropolitans. The government hasimplemented programs and initiatives within the communities to aidthe poor (Brazil, 2016). Crime rates are high especially intowns. Law enforcement has been accused of corruption making it hardfor people to report crime. As a result, the “National PublicSecurity Force” was formed to deal with crime in place of local lawenforcers. Brazil has a free education policy (Brazil, 2016).Public education in the nation is free for all educational levels.Primary school is mandatory and state municipalities are in charge ofmaintaining the schools. Football is part of Brazil’s culture asclose to all citizens are actively involved in football celebration.The country is actively engaged in sports through football and haswon several world cups.
Liberalism and conservatism best describes Brazil’s past andcurrent policy priorities. The country is conservative due to itseconomic policy and rich cultural heritage. Although the governmentallows for free markets, the macroeconomic policy implies that thegovernment controls the economy of Brazil. Through its money policy,it controls the supply of money in the economy. Also, the governmentsets laws and restrictions aimed at regulating or encouraging thecollective economic indicators. Brazil’s worldview depicts thecountry as cultural. It is highly dependent on the traditionalimportance of the family. Another important cultural aspect of Brazilis the church. Many Brazilians adhere to Catholic ideals.
The political policy of Brazil indicates that the country isliberal. The government is democratic. The preservation of civilians’freedoms is important to the government. There is freedom of choicebecause the government is voted in by the civilians. Despitewidespread poverty in the country, the government has implementedprograms intended at assisting the poor. In addition, the country hasa free education policy. This makes it possible for all children togain an education. Brazilians are free to express their differentcultures, which contributes to the country’s rich culturalheritage.
The policy issues Brazil would like to be addressed by aninternational summit are global poverty and international crime.
Global poverty is caused by corruption and bad governance. Corruptionhappens when some people, especially those in power, steal money oruse it for personal gains at the expense of civilians. As a result,money that would have been used in projects aimed at alleviatingpoverty is reserved as a resource of a few people. Bad governance,involves policies that promote unfairness and inequality. Forinstance, unfair employment policies make it difficult for the poorto get jobs, which can help them earn a decent living. Bad governancealso encourages inequality, for instance the misappropriation offunds aimed at helping civilians, means that some citizens to notreceive government aid and thus progress to be poor.
The causes of international crime include poverty, politicalinstability and joblessness. Poverty causes people to engage in crimedue to conflicts between the haves and those that do not have. Thepoor may feel that they deserve the property of the rich, while therich resort by defending what they have, which leads to war.Political instability encourages crime. Leaders of politicallyunstable nations are often dictatorial and may resort to war toenforce their laws. Civilians may react by revolting against suchgovernments, which escalates into hostilities, and acts againsthumanity. Joblessness pushes the unemployed into illegal activitieslike drug trafficking, which is a crime in most nations.
Brazil would support policy responses to these issues. Such policyresponses include a global aid program aimed at working towards thealleviation of poverty. Considering that the country ranks high inregards to poverty, it will become a member of the global aid programto benefit from initiatives that improve the lives of its civilians.In dealing with international crimes, countries can form a lawenforcement unit that is not restricted by territory. This means thatif individuals are caught trafficking drugs outside or within theircountry, the law enforcement is called in to deal with the drugtraffickers. Brazil will support such a policy because the countryhas a high crime rate. Also, such a body enhances credibility insolving international crime, as bias and corruption are avoided.
Brazil. (2016). Brazilian social issues. Retrieved from:http://www.brazil.org.za/social-issues.html
Bruha, P. (2014). Brazilian armed forces. The Brazilian Business,1-1.
Loman, H. (2014). Brazil’s macro economy, past and present.Economic Research. Retrieved from:https://economics.rabobank.com/publications/2014/january/brazils-macro-economy-past-and-present/
Pio, C. (2013). Brazil: Political and economic lessons fromdemocratic transitions. Council on Foreign Relations.Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/democratization/brazil/p30811
Samovar, L. A & Porter, R. E. (2003). InterculturalCommunication. Belmont: Wadsworth.