Bullying of Canadian High School Students

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Bullyingof Canadian High School Students


Tableof Contents

1. Background 4

2. Target Market 5

3. BCOS Model 6

3.1 Benefits and Costs 7

3.2 Others 8

3.3 Self-efficacy 8

4. Marketing Objectives 9

5. Bullying Positioning 10

6. Marketing Strategy 12

6.1 Direct Marketing 13

6.2 Event Marketing 13

6.3 Community Marketing 13

6.4 Social Media Marketing 13

6.5 Word of Mouth Marketing 14

6.6 Public Relations Marketing 14

6.7 Promotional Marketing 14

7. Marketing Strategy Execution 15

7.1 School Level 15

7.2 Classroom Level 15

7.3 Individual Level 16

8. Conclusion 16

9. References 17

Bullyingof Canadian High School Students

  1. Background

Childrenhave the right to experience safety at school, at home, and thecommunity. Nevertheless, bullying finds its way in the life of manychildren. Reducing bullying within schools has become a high priorityfor policymakers, parents, and educators more than it has in thepast. However, ensuring child safety and healthy relationshippromotions within the school compound requires a thoroughunderstanding of the different dynamics brought forth by thiscomplicated form of intimidating, obnoxious behavior. Bullying asdefined by Wang et al. (2016) was once primarily referred to physicalactivities including kicking, punching, and hitting. However, Bauman,Toomey &amp Walker (2013) points out that the term’s definitionhas experienced change over a period classifying it either to bedirect or indirect not excluding cyber bullying that gainedpopularity in the 21st Century. Research supports this by revealingthat different forms of non-physical mannerisms may have comparableimpacts on victims. Damaging effects associated with verbalbullying, social exclusion, as well as, psychological bullying hasnow gained popularity in the same accord. Bullying activities areaimed at victims in purposive manners with the intention of reducingthe victim’s perceived power over their current situation or causeharm to the victim. Despite boys being more prone to experiencebullying or take up the bullying persona mainly associated withphysical bullying, girls are also prone to other forms of bullyingsuch as social exclusion and verbal harassment. In the contents ofthis paper, I tend to research on the bullying of high schoolchildren in Canada as the target market. I also aim to use the BCOSmodel to analyze the target market, highlight the marketing objectiveand bullying position, and lastly come up with a marketing strategyto handle the bullying issue.

  1. Target Market

Accordingto Ramaseshan, Ishak &amp Kingshott (2013), target markets are thesection of customers that a business or organization tends to focusits marketing attempts, and eventually its promotion towards.Understanding and coming up with a clear target market offers a goodfoundation towards a marketing strategy hence exploring the marketingmix to ensure that a service or product thrives in the marketplace.The target market involved in bullying are the Canadian high schoolstudents since it has been documented that high school students notonly in Canada experience some form of bullying at some point intheir education period. To further understand, a target market,marketing segmentation must undergo establishment. The marketingsegmentation, in this case, involves high school students who arebullies, victim-bullies, or victims. Studies in multiple countriespropose that roughly fifteen percent of grades seven to nine studentsdisclose to have participated in the act of bullying either asvictims-bullies, victims, or bullies (Cozma et al., 2015). In Canada,research suggests that approximately six percent of students in thetwelve to nineteen age brackets admitted to bullying others, eightpercent of being bully-victims, and one percent of being both victimsand bullying instigators weekly. The survey also indicated that evenmore boys than their girl counterparts have reported to beingbullying victims and almost every boy named their male peers as theiraggressors (Sampasa, Roumeliotis, &amp Xu, 2014). Due to this, it ismainly concluded that boys have a higher tendency to show aggressiontowards their peers making them more involved in the bullyingprocess.

Inassociation with the types of bullying experienced by the Canadianhigh school students, approximately ten to fifteen percent of 11 to15-year-old students admitted to being associated with physicalbullying on a weekly basis (Canadian Red Cross, 2016). Further,physical bullying mainly peaks in the sixth and eighth grades andprogressively drops after that. Particularly under this type ofbullying, boys reported on twice as much bullying when compared togirls, but both genders recounted an equal victimization frequency.Additionally, 25 to 30 percent of students claimed to indulge inphysical bullying every month with boys being more prone tovictimization. Subsequently, verbal harassment registered a total often to fifteen percent being involved weekly (PREVNet, 2016). Aboutdouble the number of students reported to being verbal bullyingvictims than engaging in the act presenting no sufficient differencesbetween the boys and girls associated with this bullying type.

Additionally,the students mainly engaging in the social form of bullying are lesslikely identified since their negative intentions experience maskingdue to the unseen and unheard consequences. In this light, girls tendto be more prone to bully or be bullied socially when compared totheir boy counterparts with seven percent of students reporting to bevictims and two percent to be instigators of social bullying weekly.Lastly, Canadian educators positioned cyber bullying as the top mostissue of concern in their high schools especially when victims tendto lose interest in the activities at school leading to low-qualitywork or even skipping classes (Sampasa, Roumeliotis, &amp Xu, 2014).Despite the numbers of bullying amongst the Canadian high schoolstudents being high, Cozma et al. (2015) report that over half thenumber of bullied students opt to remain silent over their demises atschool. Due to this, they make the appropriate target market to raiseawareness to so that bullying can experience a reduction both atschool and the society.

  1. BCOS Model

Inagreement with Rose, Nickerson &amp Stormont (2015), Bullying comesacross as a form of behavior that individuals develop over time.Therefore, it is paramount to influence behavioral change amongst theCanadian high school students towards bullying. The influence mainlycomes from transforming the thoughts and ideas of power believed tobe associated with bullying with an ultimate goal of changing thetarget market’s behavior. For proper and efficient marketing ofanti-bullying, there must be high behavioral involvement thatprimarily experience boosting from four factors named the BCOSfactors standing for benefits, costs, others, and self-efficacy(Milichovsky &amp Simberova, 2015). Through the focus on BCOSfactors, individuals may be able to achieve marketing differentiationas dramatically and clearly as possible. In agreement with Tabaku, &ampMersini (2014), this means identifying the manner by which marketingadoption benefits are important and the lower costs when compared tocompetitors. Additionally, they manage to point out the significancethat the support of others have in the marketing adoption andrequires no new substantial set of skills on the adopter’s part.

    1. Benefits and Costs

Benefitsand costs are amongst the main focus factors of marketing. The targetaudience must undergo proper teaching regarding the benefits ofstopping bullying so that they become willing to change theirbehavior in a positive light. Milichovsky &amp Simberova (2015)claim customers have to give something up for them to get a cost. Therefore, the Canadian high school students should be able tovisualize and understand the benefits that come with bullyingreduction and believe that they outweigh the costs. If such asituation is achieved, then the mindset and behavior of the targetaudience will be swayed to stop bullying within schools. Furthermore,to make significant changes, the target audience must play ameaningful role in establishing and implementing an anti-bullyingprogram within the school. It should primarily focus on behavioralchange rather than settle for transformations that fall short of theprimary objective.

Additionally,this anti-bullying program should concentrate on specific segments ofthe target audience ensuring the minimization of costs whilesimultaneously speaking to the particular needs, wants, and interestsof the different high school student individuals or groups. Utilizingthe marketing mix four P’s including place, promotion, price, andproduct, the marketing attempts to promote behavioral change towardsbullying will significantly move beyond benefiting social promotionto behavioral cost reductions (Tabaku, &amp Mersini, 2014).

    1. Others

Thebroad term others in the bullying programs often represent schoolprincipals, school teachers and staff, parents, students, schoolboards, and the more general community. They often play a significantrole in the supporting marketing usage in the bullying preventionplans extensively. Through the spreading of the word against bullyingusing different media platforms, others manage to reach a broadaudience and share experiences (Tabaku, &amp Mersini, 2014). Theirinvolvement in the bullying program ensures that studentsexperiencing bullying have the much support needed whilesimultaneously reaching out to the students carrying out the bullyingpractice to stop.

    1. Self-efficacy

Self-efficacyis an important trait to instill in children undergoing bullyingsince they will learn how to deal positively with their situations.According to Palmer, Simmons &amp Mason (2014), they will manage togain the needed skills for the marketing of the anti-bullyingprogram. In the recent times, there is a wide range of materialswritten that campaign against bullying giving these students thepower to learn from them and gain further knowledge on how to managebullying in schools. Additionally, the students, through thematerials can design an efficient way to market their anti-bullingprogram guaranteeing participation from a wide range of individualsinfluenced bullying within Canadian schools.

  1. Marketing Objectives

Accordingto Tabaku, &amp Mersini (2014), marketing objectives serve as goalsset by organizations while promoting services or ideas to theirpotential customers, which are achievable within a set period. Insimpler terms, they are set marketing strategies that aim to achievean organization’s overall objective. Concerning bullying, a schoolwould strive to make their idea of anti-bullying popular among theirtargeted market by providing information concerning the negativeimplications of bullying to all the participants. Through this, theycan manage to reduce the number of high school students that indulgewith the bullying behavior.

However,it is important for the marketing objective to follow the SMART(specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-oriented)criteria (Palmer, Simmons &amp Mason, 2014). Through this criteria,would manage to control effectively and supervise their marketingactivities and determine the top percentage of their new objectives.The SMART criteria enable organizations to achieve their marketinggoals through measuring their preciseness, measurability, likelypossibility, realistic, and if they can be attained within the settime (Palmer, Simmons &amp Mason, 2014). If this criterion is takeninto account when formulating the marketing objectives, then theschools will manage to obtain the desired response regarding bullyingfrom their target markets. The following are the anti-bullying SMARTmarketing objectives associated with the target market:

1.Improving anti-bullying public awareness by 35 percent in the nextfive months

2.Reduce the high school student’s bullying rate by 40 percent bythe end of 2016

3.Increase the number of stakeholders participating in reducingbullying by 50 percent in 2017

4.Expanding the target audience benefiting from the program by 60percent within the next two years

5.Spread the anti-bullying program from schools to the society by 45percent within the next two years

  1. Bullying Positioning

Inagreement with Tabaku, &amp Mersini (2014), positioning serves as amarketing concept, which outlines that which an organization can doto guarantee the effective introduction of a product to consumers. Inthe positioning concept, marketing departments create product imagesdepending on the customers they intend to attract. They do this byusing market mixing that includes the four P’s that includeproduct, place, promotion, and price. Therefore, a well thought outpositioning strategy enhances marketing efforts helping customers toparticipate in product use rather than have knowledge related to theproduct.

Sincethe anti-bullying program is a charitable activity, its marketerswill mainly deal with services and ideas. Therefore, the schoolsshould accurately define the product they are presenting to thestudents and all the relevant stakeholders through conducting surveysto determine the extent of the issue. Since the schools are marketingan intangible product, they should clearly present the benefits ofreducing bullying activities in schools (Milichovsky &amp Simberova,2015). These include regaining of victims self-esteem, a positiveshift of behavior for bullies, and an appropriate learningenvironment that builds responsible and productive adults. Once theyeffectively market their product to the Canadian high schoolstudents, then they could ensure that they participate in it toachieve the benefits presented. Through their participation, theycould significantly reduce bullying within and outside their schoolenvironments hence enjoy the benefits of being students withoutapparent social threats.

Theschools should also use appropriate distribution avenues to positiontheir product among their target market making it readily available.Yüksel-Şahin, 2015) claims if the product comes in a form of anidea, the school should select the appropriate communication mediathat facilitates the distribution of the anti-bullying campaigndesign. Additionally, services must entail convenience, availability,and assistance Milichovsky &amp Simberova (2015) making availabilitythe central part of the entire service. Therefore making theavailability of the anti-bullying campaign entails knowledge relatingto location analysis that should mainly be within the schoolcompound.

Inagreement with Ramaseshan, Ishak &amp Kingshott (2013), settling onpromotional decisions pose as the initial signs that organizationsare participating in marketing activities. They mainly utilizepublicity and advertisements to communicate with their target marketand the society. Therefore, the school could utilize advertisementstrategies for promotion, through this they can reach their intendedtarget audience effectively and ensure that they benefit from theknowledge as much as possible. Additionally, they could distributeCDs that contain anti-bullying documentaries and songs that try toinstill knowledge in the students to help them stay away frombullying. They should also create once a month exhibitions thatmainly focuses on anti-bullying and through their directparticipation, they can avoid the act of bullying. The school canalso print flyers, brochures, and posters, which presentanti-bullying information that they can distribute to the high schoolstudents.

Sincethe program that the Canadian schools are trying to sell to theirstudents do not necessarily entails financial pricings, they shouldsubstitute it for opportunity cost. According to Milichovsky &ampSimberova (2015), opportunity costs serve as benefits values aregiven up encouraging the selection of certain alternatives overothers. Therefore, the schools should view the pricings in terms oftime donation of the participants or behavioral change on the part ofstudents carrying out the bullying act. For instance, the individualswho dedicate their time to answer students phone calls concerningbullying may earn their income from being the workforce behind theprogram. Therefore, through the utilization of the marketing mix, theschool will position their bullying prevention idea to their targetaudience initiating a direction towards change and the achievement ofthe marketing objectives.

  1. Marketing Strategy

Marketingstrategy models allow organizations to direct their limited resourcesto their prime opportunities to achieve sale increment with the aimto attain a viable competitive advantage (Palmer, Simmons &ampMason, 2014). An appropriate marketing strategy draws from properproduct mix and marketing research to achieve a maximum profitmeasure by utilizing the marketing mix. A marketing strategy may alsocommunicate the service’s or product’s value to the intendedtarget audience building consumer good will (Milichovsky &ampSimberova, 2015). Through this communication, the school will ensurethat students participate in the anti-bullying program for a longtime rather than making it a one-day participatory activity.Furthermore, the school will assess the internal and external issuesrelating to bullying and come up with sound strategies. The mainmarketing strategies that the school can employ will include the useof direct, event, community, social media, word of mouth, publicrelations, and promotional marketing (Milichovsky &amp Simberova,2015).

    1. Direct Marketing

Throughdirect marketing, the schools will manage to communicate theirmessage directly with the bullies, victims, and victim-bullies. Theycan do this by using text messages, fliers, mail, email, and otheravenues. The benefits of the direct marketing involve reaching theirstudents even in their homes, thereby, ensuring that the studentscarry on with the program even in their homes.

    1. Event Marketing

Eventcreation is an appropriate way of raising awareness relating to anygiven issue (Palmer, Simmons &amp Mason, 2014). Students mainly needa reason to indulge in activities therefore, events create theperfect platform for that. The schools should take advantage of thisand create bullying awareness events that cater to the entiremarketing segment. Some of the included activities should includecounseling, insights on how to minimize the issue, as well as, fun,educational activities such as plays and songs that spreadanti-bullying messages.

    1. Community Marketing

Communitymarketing entails the engagement of audiences who have gone throughthe whole bullying situation (Hartley et al., 2015). The schoolsshould make a point of inviting different individuals who havesuffered at the hands of bullying or have bullied other students toprovide their students with various aspects of the issue. Oncestudents hear the different perspectives of the bullying concept,they will manage to relate and try to refrain from the habit. Swearer&amp Hymel (2015) claim this is because community marketing presentsa sense of great loyalty and higher engagement levels.

    1. Social Media Marketing

Sincethe 21st-century generation is quite conversant with social media,schools can take advantage of this by creating their pages on socialmedia platforms like Twitter and Facebook (Hymel et al., 2015).Through such a platform, schools are assured of full studentengagement since many of the students are often online throughout theday. Thereby, information can circulate amongst the students while atschool and home.

    1. Word of Mouth Marketing

Theform of marketing entails spreading information from one person tothe next through oral communication (Palmer, Simmons &amp Mason,2014). Using such a platform to marketing anti-bullying campaignsfosters a healthy relationship with students, the teachers andpupils, and the parents and their children. Many students find a lotof meaning sharing their experiences with a bully and as a bully, andhow they managed to overcome such scenarios. Teachers and parentsalso play a significant part in the word of mouth marketing planssince they have a direct communication and influence over thestudents (Lester et al., 2012).

    1. Public Relations Marketing

Accordingto Tabaku, &amp Mersini (2014), public relations marketing isamongst the most suitable marketing strategies. Many experiencedmarketers strive to involve the media in their campaign to raiseproduct awareness and present the benefits involved. Therefore, it isimportant that schools offer their bullying awareness campaign to themedia houses so that the knowledge can spread far and wide. The mediawill manage to communicate anti-bullying benefits effectively whilesimultaneously reaching a broad range of target audiences that willbenefit from the program.

    1. Promotional Marketing

Theform of marketing aims to stimulate consumers to take actions as faras a buying decision is concerned (Tabaku, &amp Mersini, 2014). Itoften includes using various incentives to allure the customers intoproduct participation. With this, the schools can integrate arewarding system where they can honor students who have successfullygone through the anti-bullying campaign program and changed theirbehavior for the better. Through such reward systems, other studentsparticipating in the habit may be compelled to stop.

  1. Marketing Strategy Execution

Theprimary aim of the marketing strategy is mainly to actualize the setmarketing objectives. The marketing strategy associated withpreventing bullying in Canadian high schools include should begrouped into three levels, which include the school, classroom, andindividual level.

    1. School Level

Atthe school level, bullying surveys should be done to establish thebullying extent. Once this is done, regular event and conference daysshould be initiated to educate administrators, teachers, parents,school staff, the community, and students concerning bullying habitsand response strategies (Lester et al., 2012). Additionally, theschool should have increased hallway, cafeteria, playground, andbathroom supervision. Further, there should be a coordination ofprofessionals to help students include the school nurse,psychologist, guidance counselor, parents, administrator, andstudents representatives to control and evaluate the program’ssuccess (Hartley et al., 2015).

    1. Classroom Level

Theclassroom curriculums should include lessons that promotecooperation, communication, friendship, and kindness, as well as,anger management, conflict resolution and empathy lessons (Swearer &ampHymel, 2015). The classroom should have policies against bullyingthat are short and clear and present the consequences associated withaggressive behavior. Additionally, there should be rational classroomdiscussion concerning the matter and encourage regular parentalcommunication.

    1. Individual Level

Theindividual level will include serious talks with the victims,victim-bullies, and bullies, as well as, parents of these groups ofindividuals (Lester et al., 2012). Additionally, bullies can engagein non-aggressive behavior role playing with their victims, and thevictims can engage in assertive behavior role playing with theirbullies. Through these strategies, the marketing objectives can beactualized at the time set for their execution.

  1. Conclusion

Itis clear that the bullying problem possesses difficulties to Canadianhigh school students making it a difficult area of concern. With theparticipation of the school, parents, teachers, students, and thecommunity, then the problem can be prevented and significantlyreduced. Once reduced, students will learn in healthy environmentsmaking them more productive to serve their nation shortly.

  1. References

Bauman,S., Toomey, R. B., &amp Walker, J. L. (2013). Associations amongbullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students. JournalOf Adolescence,36341-350

CanadianRed Cross. (2016). Facts on Bullying and Harassment. [online]retrieved on March 22nd2016. Fromhttp://www.redcross.ca/how-we-help/violence–bullying-and-abuse-prevention/educators/bullying-and-harassment-prevention/facts-on-bullying-and-harassment

Cozma,I., Kukaswadia, A., Janssen, I., Craig, W., &amp Pickett, W. (2015).Active transportation and bullying in Canadian schoolchildren: across-sectional study. BMCPublic Health,15(1),1-7

Hartley,M. T., Bauman, S., Nixon, C. L., &amp Davis, S. (2015). ComparativeStudy of Bullying Victimization Among Students in General and SpecialEducation. ExceptionalChildren,81(2),176-193

Hymel,S., McClure, R., Miller, M., Shumka, E., &amp Trach, J. (2015).Addressing school bullying: Insights from theories of groupprocesses. JournalOf Applied Developmental Psychology,37(BullyingPrevention and Intervention), 16-24

Lester,L., Cross, D., Shaw, T., &amp Dooley, J. (2012). Adolescentbully-victims: Social health and the transition to secondary school.CambridgeJournal Of Education,42(2),213-233

Milichovsky,F., &amp Simberova, I. (2015). Marketing Effectiveness: Metrics forEffective Strategic Marketing. EngineeringEconomics,26(2),211-219

Palmer,M., Simmons, G., &amp Mason, K. (2014). Web-based social movementscontesting marketing strategy: The mobilisation of multiple actorsand rhetorical strategies. JournalOf Marketing Management,30(3/4),383-408

PREVNet(promoting relationships &amp eliminating violence network). (2016).Bullying Facts and Solutions. [online] retrieved on March 22nd2016. From http://www.prevnet.ca/bullying/facts-and-solutions

Ramaseshan,B., Ishak, A., &amp Kingshott, R. J. (2013). Interactive effects ofmarketing strategy formulation and implementation upon firmperformance. JournalOf Marketing Management,29(11/12),1224-1250

Rose,C. A., Nickerson, A. B., &amp Stormont, M. (2015). AdvancingBullying Research From a Social-Ecological Lens: An Introduction tothe Special Issue. SchoolPsychology Review,44(4),339-352

Sampasa-Kanyinga,H., Roumeliotis, P., &amp Xu, H. (2014). Associations betweenCyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and SuicidalIdeation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren. PlosONE, (7)

Swearer,S., &amp Hymel, S. (2015). Bullying and Discrimination in Schools:Exploring Variations Across Student Subgroups. SchoolPsychology Review,44(4),504-509

Tabaku,E., &amp Mersini (Zerellari), M. (2014). An Overview of MarketingMeans used by Non-Profit Organizations: A Detailed Overview of NPOsOperating in the District of Elbasan. JournalOf Marketing &amp Management,5(1),66-83

Wang,W., Brittain, H., McDougall, P., &amp Vaillancourt, T. (2016).Research article: Bullying and school transition: Context ordevelopment?. ChildAbuse &amp Neglect,51237-248

Yüksel-Şahin,F. (2015). An Examination of Bullying Tendencies and Bullying CopingBehaviors Among Adolescents. Procedia- Social And Behavioral Sciences,191(TheProceedings of 6th World Conference on educational Sciences), 214-221