Critical Analysis of a Quantitative study

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CriticalAnalysis of a Quantitative study

CriticalAnalysis of a Quantitative study


Ogunyewo,O., Afemikhe, J., Ajio, D. &amp Olanlesi-aliu, A. (2015).Adolescents’ perception of career choice of nursing among selectedsecondary schools in Jos, Nigeria. InternationalJournal of Nursing and Midwifery,7(2), pp. 21-29

Students’perceptions and choice of nursing as a profession has an influence onstaffing challenges affecting the profession. If more students havenegative perception about the profession, there is a likelihood thatless student will join the profession. This results into a reductionin the number of student training as nurses and thus nursingshortage. The objective of this article is to research on theperceptions and choices of nursing among secondary students. Thearticle also examines the factors that influence these perceptionsand choices (Ogunyewo, et al 2015). Although the study was conductedin public and secondary school in Nigeria, similar findings have beenobserved in other parts of the world. This analysis is concerned withappraising the quantitative study. The analysis will look atprotection of human participants in the study, date collection, datamanagement and analysis and interpretation of the findings.

Protectionof participants

Participantsrefer to human subjects who take part in a research study. They playan important role in advancement of knowledge. There are critical allaspects of study where conclusions provides the foundation ofinterventions. Despite their positive contributions, not all studiesthat involve human participants are justified. There is evidence thatatrocities have been committed against human subject, especially inhealth related research studies. Consequently, there are ethicalprinciples and regulations that researchers are expected to follow toprotect unwilling subjects from harmful experiments. For example,irrespective of the extent of physical, psychological, social, oreconomic harm that is associated with an experiment or studyinvolving human participants, they should have the competence to makeinformed decisions about their willingness to participate in thestudy (Maltby, 2014). Protecting human participants is theresponsibility of the principle researcher as well as other personsdirectly or indirectly involved in the research study. In order toeffectively protect the participants, the researchers should identifythe risk associated with the study and ensure that there is informedconsent from the participants. In additional to ensuring thatparticipation in the study is voluntary, the study collecting shouldbe approved by institutional review board (Burns &amp Grove, 2011).

Theparticipant in the current study was secondary school students fromfour public and private schools in Nigeria. The researchers in thestudy were committed to protecting the participants in the study. Thestudy did not have direct adverse effects or benefits to theparticipants. However, the researchers ensured that the participantswere protected by seeking permission from the authority and ensuringthat there was informed consent. The authority in the school can beconsidered as the institutional review board. All the students whovolunteered to participate in the study were provided will allrelevant information and opportunity to seek clarifications. Furtherprotection was provided by ensuring that the identity of thevolunteers would remain anonymous (Ogunyewo, et al 2015).


Datacollection refers together information and measuring it based on thevariables in order to answer the research questions. The methods usedin data collection must be systematic and appropriate for thevariable, subjects and the nature of the study. The data collectedmay be qualitative or quantitative. The accuracy and statisticalsignificance of the data collected has a direct impact on theintegrity of the study. The conclusion of a study that is based oninaccurate data is not valid. The selection of data collectionmethods and instrument is therefore critical in a research study.

Thestudy involved secondary school students. The independent variablesin the study include social and demographic characteristics of thestudent. They include age, sex, class, religion, and parentoccupation. The dependent variables were also identified whichincluded image of nursing among the students. The basic method ofdata collection in the study was a “22 item self administeredquestionnaire” (Ogunyewo, et al 2015). The questionnaire wasadministered in the classrooms and considered of both open and closedended questions. To authenticate the questionnaires a pretest studywas carried out among students with similar characteristics. Thestudents were urged to be honest in their response measures were outin place to avoid undue influence from peers. Since thequestionnaires were self administered with 22 items, data collectiontook relatively less time to collect, although it is not indicated inthe article (Ogunyewo, et al 2015).

Datamanagement and analysis

Thedata collected in a research project will be significant if it ismanaged properly. Data managements refer to controlling the datacollected in the study to ensure that the data is useful in meetingthe goals of the research project. Data management involves assigningresponsibilities to individuals, storage and back up and makingdecisions on how to use the data. In many studies, raw data haslittle or no value relative to the research question. Data analysiswhich aims at modeling the data in order to be relevant to theresearch questions is critical. There are several methods that can beused to analyze data and make it more useful. In quantitative data,the most appropriate methods of data analysis are statisticalmethods.

Inthe current study, there are several statistical methods that havebeen used to analyze the data. They include “frequency tables,percentages, bar chart and chi square” (Ogunyewo, et al 2015). Forexample, percentages were used to show the number of students, ingeneral or in specific genders, who chose nursing as a career.Statistical methods were also used to determine the relationshipbetween variables that were studied. For example, the relationshipbetween gender and the choice of nursing as a career (Ogunyewo, et al2015). However, the authors do no illustrate the rigor of theanalysis process but provide the results of the statistical analysis.Additionally, there authors do not mention measures that were used tominimize bias in the data analysis.

Findings/ Interpretation of Findings: Implications for Practice and FutureResearch

Researchershave a responsibility of interpreting the findings of their researchand its implications in the study. This is usually contained in thediscussion and conclusion part of a research paper. Theinterpretation of the findings refers to comparing the findings ofthe study with the hypothesis of the study or other studies that arerelated to the current study. It can also be used to explain newfindings in the current study. In interpreting the findings, theresearcher is able to demonstrate his ability to think critically anddevelop solutions based on the findings of the study, decipher theunderlying meaning and highlight the significant of the study in thecurrent knowledge. The researcher can also use this section tooutline research limitations and propose future research topics basedon the findings of the study (Maltby, 2014).

Inthe current study, the researchers give a detailed interpretation oftheir findings. The researchers interpreted the findings of the studybased on the research questions and hypothesis. Statistical data wasextensively used to interpret the findings. For example, since 80percent of the participants chose nursing a future career based onself influence, the researchers argued that personal interest is animportant factor that influences the number of young people choosingnursing as a career. The presentation of the findings is wellorganized and coherent. Additionally, three recommendations and twolimitations were identified in the study (Ogunyewo, et al 2015).Although the implication to the nursing practice was discussed, theauthors did not explicitly identify areas that require further study.


Thenursing profession is faced with numerous challenges, among themincreased shortage of nurses. The shortage of nurses is influenced byseveral factors, among them increased number of nursing professionsleaving the profession and less number of student willing to join theprofession. This article reports the findings of one of the studiesthat have been carried out establish the route cause the problem. Itinvestigates the choices and perceptions of nursing among secondarystudent and factors that affects them. The aim of this paper is tocritically analyze different aspects of the article. General, it hasbeen established that the article meets the basic aspects of aquantitative research article.


Burns,N., &amp Grove, S. (2011). UnderstandingNursing Research(5thed.). Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9781437707502

Maltby,J. (2014). ResearchMethods for Nursing and Healthcare.Routledge, ISBN 1317903234.

Ogunyewo,O., Afemikhe, J., Ajio, D. &amp Olanlesi-aliu, A. (2015).Adolescents’ perception of career choice of nursing among selectedsecondary schools in Jos, Nigeria. InternationalJournal of Nursing and Midwifery,7(2), pp. 21-29.