Critical Analysis

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Kondo, Low,Henning, and Branas (2015) investigated the effects of greenstormwater installments (GSI) on health and safety in urban areas.Lee and Maheswaran (2010) reviewed academic studies on the healtheffects of green space. Tzoulas, Korpela, Ven, Yli-Pelkonen,Kazmierczak, Niemela, and James (2007) conducted an interdisciplinaryreview of the human health, ecosystem health, and greeninfrastructure.

All the articleshighlighted the irrefutable impact of GSI programs on health andsafety. Tzoulas et al. (2007) concluded that Green Infrastructure canensure healthy and safe environments for surrounding humanpopulations. Also, the people can derive psychological and physicalbenefits from Green Infrastructure. Kondo et al. (2015) concludedthat future assessments of GSI programs must consider the impact onhealth and safety. Lee and Maheswaran (2010) found that green spaceshave a beneficial effect on urban health. The observed and measurableeffects on urban health encompass physical, mental, andsocio-economic benefits.

Furthermore, allthree articles provide significant scientific contributions. Lee andMaheswaran (2010) validated the scientific view that urban designscan encourage physical activity and eliminate the barriers toexercise. Kondo et al. (2015) highlighted the importance ofconducting further studies on the particular safety and healthoutcomes of GSI programs. They also proved that GSI installation candeter the proliferation of illegal drug use and distribution inpublic areas. Tzoulas et al. (2007) provided a framework of thedynamic, complex factors affecting human and ecosystem health inurban spaces. These recommendations on future research make sensesince new details can be found to provide modernized outcomes.

Besides, allthree articles pinpointed several limitations that lay the groundworkfor additional study and research. The findings obtained in the threestudies had to be contextualized so as to maintain objectivity. Leeand Maheswaran (2010) acknowledged the difficulty of establishing asimple causal relationship between urban health and green spaces.Also, landscape design did not suffice to address all aspects ofurban health. The reviewed studies also bore several limitations. Forexample, they portrayed weak statistical links and had a poor design.The studies also betrayed elements of reverse causality and selectionbias.

Kondo et al.(2015) conducted an analysis of health and safety outcomes inPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania. However, more detailed analysis isrequired from other urban areas throughout the world. The localizedfindings based on Philadelphia could not be applied as a general rulefor all urban areas. As a case in point, the study found that GSIinstallations had minimal impact on aspects of public safety such asthefts, assaults, and homicides. Besides, outcomes in Philadelphiawere considered from 2000 to 2012. A more recent review may yielddifferent results. After all, GSI programs in the city continue toexperience rapid growth.

Tzoulas et al.(2007) focused on kick-starting a broad debate on the methods ofintegrating components of Green Infrastructure in urban areas.Expanding the scope of the study to cover rural areas may haveyielded more comprehensive conceptual framework. Furthermore, theinteractions between ecological and human health and GreenInfrastructure are quite complex. Therefore, creating a comprehensiveframework that covers these interactions was an impossible task. Thepaper also sought to engage public health specialists, environmentalpsychologists, and urban nature conservationists. Nevertheless, otherexperts in various fields also play significant roles in improvingurban environments.

The articlesused different methods in achieving their outcomes. Tzoulas et al.(2007) and Lee and Maheswaran (2010) both conducted reviews ofexisting literature. However, Tzoulas et al. (2007) focused onassociations between ecological health and Green Infrastructure whileLee and Maheswaran (2010) centered on the health effects of greenspaces. On the other hand, Kondo et al. (2015) used regression modelsto analyze the health effects of GSI installations. The review ofexisting literature limits the findings of the report to priorinformation. Therefore, Tzoulas et al. (2007) and Lee Maheswaran(2010) lack new, enlightening information. Furthermore, the errorsprevalent in previous literature are also implicated in the reviews.Kondo et al. (2015) commendably used scientific methods to drawconclusions from raw data. The use of random sampling also validatesthe interpretation of the findings as representative of the targetpopulation.

The threearticles have various weaknesses and missing links. Tzoulas et al.(2007) constructs a new set of definitions but still uses pastliterature to synthesize a conceptual framework. The article ought toundertake additional research aimed at testing the relevance of theconceptual framework. Rather than using previous research toformulate a conceptual framework, the article should use theframework to evaluate emerging cases of Green Infrastructure. Lee andMaheswaran (2010) cited the difficulty of establishing a causalrelationship between green spaces and urban health. However, thearticle still acknowledges the beneficial effects of green spaces onpublic health. These effects would hardly be discernible if it wereindeed difficult to establish direct links between urban green spacesand health. Kondo et al. (2015) recognized the presence of 238 GSIprojects within Philadelphia. However, the random samples used in thedata collection were not adequately distributed. Consequently, thearticle portrays a sampling bias in its findings. Besides, 88% of GSIprojects are located adjacent to the streets. Bias occurs because thesampling ignores the projects located further from the street.Findings would have provided a more accurate representation ofPhiladelphia if all regions were sampled.


Kondo, M. C., Low, S. C., Henning, J., &amp Branas, C. C. (2015,March). The impact of green stormwater infrastructure installation onsurrounding health and safety. American Journal of Public Health,105(3), 114-121.

Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kazmierczak,A., Niemela, J., &amp James, P. (2007, March 6). Promoting ecosystemand human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: Aliterature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81, 167–178.

Lee, A. C. K., &amp Maheswaran, R. (2010, September 10). The healthbenefits of urban green spaces: A review of the evidence. Journalof Public Health, 33(2), 212-222.