DATA ASSIGNMENT 1 Cronbach’s Alpha

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DATA ASSIGNMENT 1: CRONBACH’S ALPHA 7

DATA ASSIGNMENT 1: Cronbach’sAlpha

Dixie Blackstock

University of Houston Clear Lake

Methods

Participants

Data collected from the SamHouston State University, Spring 2016 semester, Abnormal Psychology3331. Student participants (n= 38) and eachparticipating student will receive an incentive of five extra pointson their final grade for participation in the study. Students (24women, 14 men, , age range: 16-60 years, ( see Table 1. for racialbreakdown of sample).

Results

Approximately37% of the participants are men while the remaining 63% of the sampleare women. The mean age is 25.9211. This value indicates that theparticipants had an average age of 25.92 years, and the standarddeviation of 10.0951, indicating that the ages deviated from the meanby the value of 10.0951 years. Te sample constituted of one Hawaiian,two black participants, four Hispanic respondents, 21 whiterespondents, six bi-racial participants, two multi-racial, and tworespondents from other unidentified races. Additionally, 18respondents were graduate students, six were senior students, sixwere junior students, and the remaining eight were freshmen.

Table 1: Demographic Data

participants

Gender

Age

Race

marital status

Education

1

1

22

6

5

5

2

2

25

6

6

5

3

2

24

9

6

5

4

1

25

6

1

5

5

1

28

6

1

5

6

1

22

6

6

5

7

2

20

4

5

3

8

2

25

5

5

5

9

2

22

6

5

5

10

1

23

6

6

4

11

2

60

7

2

5

12

2

18

6

5

1

13

2

33

5

2

5

14

2

22

5

5

1

15

1

18

6

5

1

16

2

23

6

1

5

17

1

21

6

6

5

18

2

24

7

5

4

19

1

25

6

6

3

20

2

21

9

6

4

21

2

30

6

1

5

22

2

22

6

5

5

23

2

37

6

1

4

24

2

26

6

5

4

25

2

16

6

5

3

26

1

25

5

4

4

27

2

21

8

5

3

28

2

22

6

5

5

29

2

28

7

6

5

30

1

21

6

6

3

31

1

21

4

6

2

32

1

55

7

2

2

33

1

24

6

5

3

34

1

22

8

1

5

35

2

18

7

6

1

36

2

18

2

5

1

37

2

22

7

5

5

38

2

56

6

1

1

This research focused onintrinsic and extrinsic motivation towards education as items ofstudy. The consistency and reliability measure of these items wasdetermined using Cronbach’s alpha test. Bearing in mind that thisresearch aims at determining whether academic motivation leads tosuccessful completion of the undergraduate degree., the intrinsic andextrinsic orientation of goals are placed under consideration asfactors of motivation. The intrinsic values measure the motivationoriginating from the student him/herself, while extrinsic factors arethose factors that are exerted by the environment. These items ofinterest are analyzed based on a number of factors as presented inthe table below:

Table 2: Scale of Items ofthe Study

Intrinsic Orientation of Goals

Extrinsic Orientation of Goals

  1. The desire to find solution for challenging modules

  2. Use of study materials that provokes curiosity and enhances students’ interest

  3. The need to gain comprehensive knowledge of the field of study and gain profound expertise

  4. The need to understand the modules’ content

  5. The necessity to obtain as much knowledge as conceivable

  6. Using assignments that students can learn from regardless of its grade contribution factor

  1. The need to get desirable degree classification

  2. To perform better than other students

  3. To get outstanding grade in all modules

  4. To get better grade than most students in each module

  5. The need to outperform peers in all ways

  6. The need to show family and friends the high ability that the student has

The two items of the study aretherefore analyzed based on a 0.70 cut-off value, as 0.70 isconsidered an acceptable reliability value. Relationship between the two items was determined using Pearson’s correlation. A valuesobtaind range from 0.1 to 0.3 indicating a low level of relationship

Table 3: The Cronbach‘s Scorefor Items Used in the study

All students

Intrinsic Orientation of Goals

IExtrinsic Orientation of Goals

Graduated students

0.7513

0.7781

Seniors

0.7669

0.8064

Juniors

0.7467

0.7817

Freshmen

0.6772

0.7739

Table 4: Pearson’s Correlation of Intrinsic orientation of Goalsand Extrinsic Orientation of Goals

All students

Correlation Coefficient

Graduated students

0.1123

Seniors

0.2865

Juniors

0.1432

Freshmen

0.1976

Table 4: Summary of finings based on various groups of students basedon 5-point Likert Scale

All Students

Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic Motivation

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

Graduated Students

3.53

0.90

3.54

1.05

Seniors

3.61

0.86

3.71

1.09

Juniors

3.41

1.02

3.24

1.07

Freshmen

3.66

0.06

3.55

1.12

Discussion

The scale used are the fourscales defined by the ‘MotivatedStrategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)’that was founded in 1991 in the study conducted by Pintrichet al (1991) and anadditional scale. The scale measures various motivations to learn,learning strategies, and expectation of learning. The resultsobtained from the correlation analysis revealed that the two aspectsof motivation are independent of each other. However, the seniorstudents showed the highest level of correlation between intrinsicand extrinsic motivation. This is a desirable result, as the validityand reliability tests would not be affected when the scales areabstracted as per the MSLQ modular. As such, such findings indicatethat motivation is a blend of the two intrinsic and extrinsicfactors and the successful completion of undergraduate degree dependson both factors.

The ANOVA test is useful indetermining the quantity of statistically significant differencebetween the group of students in terms of both intrinsic andextrinsic motivation at 95% significance.

The findings provide sufficientdata to assert that academic motivation measure determines thesuccessful completion of the undergraduate degree. The findingssuggest that the best result, in terms of completion of undergraduatedegree, is observed when students portrays both extrinsic andintrinsic academic motivation. In addition results indicate thatregardless of group-based characteristics that depend on the level ofeducation, age, gender, marital status and race, the diversity on themotivation scale reflects the willingness of students to completetheir undergraduate degree. In addition, findings show that the levelof intrinsic and extrinsic motivation vary from group to group, butall students have significant level of both extrinsic and intrinsicmotivational element, implying a highly motivated population that islikely to successfully complete the undergraduate degree.

Reference

Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F.,Garcia, T. and McKeachie, W. J. (1991) A Manual for the Use of theMotdivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), TechnicalReport Number 91-B-004, The University of Michigan, USA.