DEVELOPMENTAL FIELD 6
ErikErikson is one of the theorists who are associated with thedevelopment theories. Erik Erikson developed the psychosocial theoryof development. Through his development theory, Erikson was in aposition to focus on the problems that are unique to a particularstage. This has helped individuals in identifying with problems thatare associated with a particular stage and finding solutions that canhelp in solving the problems. This report would discuss thedevelopment theory associated with Erik Erikson.
Onhis psychosocial theory of development, Erik put into considerationthe impact of the external factors, parents, neighbors, teachers andthe society in the process of development from childhood to adulthood(Shaffer& Kipp, 2010). According to his theory, Erik indicates that everyperson is entitled to go through eight similar stages in the entirelife span these stages are as discussed in the paragraphs thatfollow.
Birthto 18 Months
Duringthis time, Erikson indicates that the baby`s primary emphasis is tohis or her mother and father`s ability to care for the childbasically by touching and visual contact. In case the child receivesthe best care, he is most likely to develop confidence and securityunlike the less cared for, who is most likely to feel insecure andhave the notion of lacking trust in the world (Shaffer& Kipp, 2010).
EarlyChildhood Years /Toddler 1-3 Years
Inthis stage, a child has an opportunity to build self-esteem as she orhe learns new skills, and what is wrong or right. What brings thedifference is how the child is cared for and the attention given. Awell-cared child tends to be confident while a child who is lesscared for is likely to develop low self-esteem.
3– 5 Years-Preschoolers
Inthis stage, a child tends to admire adults and strive to imitatethem. They take initiatives to create play stations, and the word WHYis always on their mind and they work towards exploring it. The stageis similar to Sigmund’s, Oedipus complex, where children tend to besexually attracted to their opposite sex parent.
6to 12 Years
Inthis stage, also known as the latent phase, a child can achieve andaccomplish most of life skills thus developing a sense of industry.This period also marks an important stage in which any unresolvedconflicts can lead to significant problems concerning self-esteem andcompetence in the future. With the expanding world, during thisphase, the neighbors and teachers are also incorporated in the lifeof the child and the parent is not the complete authority (Shaffer& Kipp, 2010).
Adolescent-12to 18 Years
Thisstage comprises of identity versus role confusion or fidelity. Thisstage development primarily depends on what an individual does. Astruggle to identify the identity involves negotiating with socialinteraction and trying to fit so as to gain a sense of belonging andbuild morality with an intention of knowing what is right or wrong.Some of the adolescents, who become unsuccessful in this stage, endup having role confusion and cause major upheavals in the future(Newman & Newman, 2014).
YoungAdult 18 to 35
Thisis a phase in which people starts looking for intimacy and love,others tend to settle and have families. Significant relationshipsare with spouses and friends. In case individuals are unsuccessful ingetting intimacy and love, isolation is likely to occur later intheir life.
Middle-AgedAdults 35 to 65
Careerand work, as well as family, are the most important things at thisstage. People in this age group are bound to take heavierresponsibilities. People work towards establishing stability andproducing something that can make a difference in the society.Stagnation,inactivity, and meaningless are the most fears at this stage (Newman& Newman, 2014).
LateAdult-65 Years to Death
Eriksonindicates that this phase is more of reflection of the past. Somewould look back and feel contented and successful, having left a goodlife and considerable contribution to the society. Others may lookbehind with despair counting the many times they failed in theirendeavors.Fearof death may encroach in their lives as they try to find the meaningof life.
Erikson`spsychosocial theory presents an important and powerful tool inself-awareness in teaching and helping others. His model ofundergoing eight distinct stages gives an assertion that humancontinues to change and develop throughout their life span (Newman &Newman, 2014). It is an optimistic and helpful idea, which is alsobelieved to be real since the stages he discusses emerge as thephases that individuals go through life. Nevertheless, his theory isnot without critique since his theory has been criticized because, attimes, adults may experience some changes in life that may make themnot identify with the characteristics that Erikson identifies (Newman& Newman, 2014). For instance, a person may experiencedifficulties during his early stages of development, but his life maycome to change later. In such a scenario, it would be difficult forsuch a person to go through the eight stages of development proposedby Erikson in his theory of development.
Newman,B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2014). Developmentthrough life: A psychosocial approach.Australia: Wadsworth, 2014.
Shaffer,D. R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmentalpsychology: Childhood and adolescence.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.