Eagle Owl in Arabian Gulf Extinction

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Eagle Owl inArabian Gulf Extinction

ThePharaoh eagle-owl also known with a scientific name as Buboascalaphus is an owl species in the &quotStrigidae&quotfamily. The species is found abundantly in the Arabian Gulf and isone of the small species of eagle owl species. The Pharaoh eagle-owlis an attractive prey bird with large striking orange-yellow roundeyes and mottled like plumage. The Arabian Gulf is home to these owlswith the upperparts and head with densely and tawny markedcreamy-white and black blotches and streaks (Smalley, 2009). Thelower side has reddish-brown and original brown vermiculations on thebelly and lower breast. The face is known for its disc-like typicalform in comparison to other species of owls. It is defined by a heftydarker hooked bill while tiny ear tufts characterize the head. In theArabian Gulf, two subspecies are recognized: Bubo ascalaphusand Bubo ascalaphus desertium. The latter is known for itspaler and smaller sandier coloration.


In 1809, it was thought that Pharaoh eagle-owl was part of the B.bubo group species, the separation of Pharaoh eagle-owl was laterdone following the vocalizations in the context of the morphologystudy. However, the DNA evidence was not entirely conclusive aboutthe species since it appeared that it integrated with the B. bubo inthe Arabian Gulf and other parts of the Middle East (Muradian &ampRival, 2013). It was suggested that the specificities involved wereperhaps as a result of a range that overlapped the speciesintermediates with the B. bubo race hispanus of North-WestAfrica, which was also presumed to have become extinct in thoseAfrican regions (Shehab &amp Ciach, 2008). Further studies indicatedthat the Sahara to the Arabian would have separated the eagle-owlspecies as race desertium.


Pharaoh eagle-owl resides in the Arabian Gulf, an environment thatis characterized by rocky deserts, gorges and cliffs, andsemi-deserts. The Arabian Gulf, according to Mohedano et al. (2014),is located towards the extreme corner of southwestern Asian regionsand is bounded by the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, and the Gulf of Eden.The environment inhabited by the Pharaoh eagle-owl is scattered withtrees around the gulfs and shrubs, occasionally in the dry savannastowards the East and around the outcrops of many oasis (Norton,2005). The environment is also characterized by freshwater oases adsprings around the gulfs, which the eagle owl prefers to reside.


These problems are about Pharaoh eagle owls and humans. Theseproblems are caused by the involvement of humans in the Arabian Gulf.Vaurie (1960) noted that people`s involvement in conservation of theenvironment complexities and problems. The cause of problems is as aresult of the paradox, which in reality, should be consideredbeneficial species within the group (Lobley, 2006). The problems aredrawn from the fact that Pharaoh eagle-owl is feared, despised, andare associated with witchcraft by people around the Arabian Gulfregion. As a result, these eagle owls have been hunted and killed toa point where their total population has dwindled to almostextinction.

Effects ofProblems-results

From the environmentalist`s perspective, the complete extinction ofthe Pharaoh eagle-owl from the Arabian Gulf means that the effectswill be felt in the entire habitat. According to Jabado &amp Javelle(2012), the decline and extinction of this species will in turnsignal the reduction and death of other species, for example, the elkand squirrels. These animals mostly occupy the rocky areas of theArabian Gulf and the trees and shrubs around the oases, and in turn,would be disruptive to the dynamic nature and forces of the Gulfnature, (Humood, 2014) which are known to sustain life. This isbecause the life harbored by the Arabian Gulf forms a web of complexinterdependent relationship, which in turn plays a crucial role inconserving floods, landslides, and soil erosion.

Implementationof Solutions: what and how to do

The Pharaoh eagle-owl should be saved from extinction for purposesof saving the entire Arabian Gulf ecosystem in which other speciesreside. Naser (2013) noted that the Pharaoh eagle-owl is arepresentation and indicator of gauging the healthy ecosystem of theplace, which in turn provides its actual habitat. Secondly, thespecies ought to be protected and preserved for its aesthetic valuefor the unique Gulf ecosystem it represents.

Itis important that the magnificence and splendor that the speciesprovides to inhabit them are protected. Finally, the species shouldbe protected for purposes of scientific value and increaseunderstanding of the Arabian Gulf ecosystem. How to do it will dependon the individuals and systems involved (Smalley, 2009). Forinstance, the solution will require the creation of environmentalawareness based on the environmentalist perspective.


Pharaoh eagle-owl is regarded as a species from the &quotStrigidae&quotfamily. The Arabian Gulf is regarded as the main habitat for thespecies, which is bound for extinction. The paper, therefore,described its habitat as having rocky surfaces with trees and shrubssurrounding the oases of the Arabian Gulf region. The problems causedby the near extinction of the species are regarded to be as a resultof human activities and perception of the bird species. The paperalso examined the implementation of solutions to conserve theecosystem created by the species. These solutions include raisingawareness and increasing the role played by the Arabian ecosystem.


Jabado, R. W., &amp Javelle, C. (2012). Marine ecosystems in theUnited Arab Emirates. Dubai, UAE: Emirates Marine EnvironmentalGroup (EMEG).

Humood A. Naser. (2014). Marine Ecosystem Diversity in the ArabianGulf: Threats and Conservation. InTech.

Lobley, G. R. (2006). PhotoSpot: Pharaoh Eagle-Owl. Sandgrouse,28, 82-84.

Mohedano, I., Abu, B. M. A., Hunter, B., Buchan, J., Michaels, C. J.,&amp Yamaguchi, N. (2014). On the diet of the Pharaoh Eagle Owl,Bubo ascalaphus (Savigny, 1809), in Qatar, with an overview of itsfeeding habits. Zoology in the Middle East, 60, 2, 111-119.

Muradian, R., &amp Rival, L. M. (2013). Governing the provisionof ecosystem services. Dordrecht: Springer.

Naser, H. A. (2013). Assessment of heavy metal contamination inthe marine environment of the Arabian Gulf

Norton, B. G. (2005). Sustainability: A philosophy of adaptiveecosystem management. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Shehab, A. H., &amp Ciach, M. (2008). Diet composition of thePharaoh Eagle Owl, Bubo ascalaphus, in Azraq Nature Reserve, Jordan.Turkish Journal of Zoology, 32, 1, 65-69.

Smalley, C. P. (2009). Threat to the spotted owl. Hockessin,Del: Mitchell Lane Publishers.

Vaurie,C. (1960). Systematic notes on Palearctic birds: No. 41. NewYork, N.Y: American Museum of Natural History.