East European Studies

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EastEuropean Studies


EastEuropean Studies

Essayone: Athens and Spartans

Thetwo ancient Greece rivals that made the most clatter and gave themost traditions were the Sparta and the Athens. The two were veryclose on the map, but very far apart in the manner in which theylived their lives, and what they valued. As they emerged from theDark Age, the common aspect of the Greek poleis was the adoption ofthe Phoenician alphabet that returned literacy to Greece (Sophocles.,2002).To adopt to these institutions, the Athens and the Spartans formedgovernments, where both had an assembly, and the people elected theassembly members. The Spartans were ruled by two kings while theAthens were governed by the archons, who were elected yearly. As bothof parts of the government of Athens was led by elected leaders, theAthens claimed to be the origin of democracy and as such, they weremore democratic.

Conversely,the life of the Spartans was simple. They focused on war andobedience. The young boys underwent training to be warriors while theyoung girls received the training of mothering the warriors. On theother hand, the life of the Athens was just a creative wonderland.They could receive a good education and pursue sciences or arts(Homer,1990).The boys could choose to be armies or not while the girls wererestricted to other undertakings, apart from education, business, andwar. For several decades, the armies of the Spartans defended theGreek lands. Nonetheless, both the Spartans and the Athenians foughtin the Battle of Plataea side by side, and this ended the invasionsof Persia into Greece.

Notably,both the Athenians and the Spartans differed on how to get along withthe other Greeks. The Sparta appeared relaxed and could just offerassistance and army where necessary. The Athens on the other viewintended to control the majority of the land around them. The resultwas a war between all Greeks called Peloponnesian war, but Spartawon. In the real spirit of the Greek, the Spartans refused to torchdown the Athenian city. Instead, the spirit and the culture of theAthens was left to live on, as long as the Athenians stopped thedesire to rule others. As such, the Athenian influence remained, andit even became stronger (Homer,1990).Although the Spartans had the same types of meeting places,buildings, and temples, those of the Athens was more popular.

Essaytwo: The mythological tales of Greece

Inthe Greek mythological tales, the gods controlled the fate of themortals. The mortals sought to know what the gods had kept for themin store using prophesy. The gods could communicate to the livingpeople by using both the dreams and the prophecies. The prophecy usedto inform people of the stable future and at times, the prophecyguided the behavior of individuals. Through prophecy, people couldknow the will of the gods and what lied ahead. Furthermore, theprophecy was not just about consulting the gods about the futurealone. It also consulted the spirits of the dead, particularly insome places around where it was said to be the entrances to theunderworld (the oracle of the dead). An example of such an area wasaround the Acheron River, in Epirus (Sophocles,2002).For prophecy in ancient Greece, the underpinning moral value, was thereward of the gods regarding obedience and honorable behavior of thepeople.


Homer.(1990). TheIliad.New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Viking.

Sophocles.(2002). Sophocles:the Theban plays.Newburyport, MA: Focus Pub./R Pullins Co.