Mostinfluential learning theories
Learningis usually referred to the process that is responsible of bringingtogether environmental and personal influences and proficiencies ofacquiring ,modifying or enriching the knowledge of a person,attitudes, values ,skills world views and behaviors. Learningtheories lead to the development of hypothesis that explains howthese processes usually take place (Weidman, J. C., & Jacob, W.J. 2011). The major theories and the concepts of learning include thefollowing, multiple intelligence, cognitive psychology, behaviorist,social constructivism, experimental learning, and the situatedcommunity of practice and learning theory.
Theprimary notion of behaviorism explains that learning is usuallydependent on change of the behaviors as a result of reinforcement,acquisition and the solicitation of associationsbetween theinducements resulting from the environs and some noticeable responsesof an individual. Behaviorists are usually concerned in theassessable changes in behavior. A reaction to a stimulus is usuallyreinforced when there is some positive rewarding effect. A responseto a stimulus is made resilient by repetition and exercise. This hasled to the creation of a learning view that is similar to the“drill-and–practice” programs. Generally learning is astep-by-step or a continual estimation of some of the anticipatedpartial behaviors by the utilization of punishment and reward.
Cognitivebehaviorism was brought about with an intention of moving away frombehaviorism. This was because people are no longer regarded as acollection of retorts to the outward stimuli, like the behavioristsassumed, but are now facts processors. Cognitive psychologyremunerated great consideration to the complicated intellectualphenomena which was mostly overlooked by the behaviorists, and wasmainly prejudiced by the development of the computer as a tool forinformation-processing, which turned out to be analogous to the humanintelligence. In the cognitive psychology, learning is usuallyassumed to be an attainment of knowledge the learner is taken to bean information-processor whose main work is to absorb information andhas to undertake some cognitive operations on it, and also store itin the memory. The most preferred method of giving instruction islecturing and reading of textbooks, and when it gets to its extreme,the learner is forced to be a passive recipient of the knowledgegiven by the teachers (Cole, G. A. 2004).
Latein the 20thcentury, there was further changing of the constructivist view oflearning due to the upswing of the viewpoint of situated cognitionand learning, which created a lot of emphasis on the substantial rolecontext, mostly the societal interaction. Disapproval rose againstthe approach of the information-processing constructivist andlearning becoming robust. The principle of the censure was that theinformation-processing constructivism viewed cognition and learningas the processes took place within the mind and was in isolation fromthe surrounding and the interactions it had with it. Knowledge isviewed to be self-sufficient and was independent of the contexts itfound itself in .in the new view, learning and cognition are assumedto be the interactions between and individual and a situation(Dwivedi,Y. K., Wade, M. R., & Schneberger, S. L. 2012). Knowledge istaken into consideration as a product of activity, culture andcontext in which it is utilized and formed. This led to the birth ofa new metaphor for learning as the “social negotiation” and“participation.” All the theories above about learning none canbe selected and assumed to be perfect. All theories have theirstrengths and short comings. The best thing is to embrace that worksouts for most of the people.
Cole,G. A. (2004). Personneland human resource management.London: Thomson Learning.
Dwivedi,Y. K., Wade, M. R., & Schneberger, S. L. (2012). Informationsystems theory: Explaining and predicting our digital society. NewYork, NY: Springer.
Weidman,J. C., & Jacob, W. J. (2011). Beyond the comparative: Advancingtheory and its application to practice. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.