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1.The working memory has a limited capacity to hold information whilethe long-term memory has an unlimited capacity for information. Theamount of time that the information is contained in the workingmemory is around 30 seconds while the long-term memory could providethe information for indefinite periods of time (Tolman,1967). Theworking memory keeps information in the form of phonological loopsand visual-spatial sketchpad while the information in the long memoryis encoded

2.The attention is important to facilitate all types of objects andinformation as it is transferred to the memory. This implies that themore interested an individual is, the more the information iscommitted to the memory and hence the ability to recall theinformation. The factors that influence attention are motion, size,intensity, novelty, incongruity social cues, emotion and theimportance of the information to the individual (Tolman,1967).

3.Procedural knowledge is the knowledge of how things are done.

Organizedknowledge is the formally acquired knowledge such as what is gainedin schools.

Declarativeknowledge is the knowledge of things that are already known.

Socialknowledge is the knowledge acquired as a result of interaction(Tolman,1967).

4.A schema provides a general understanding of objects. It`s a way toorganize the knowledge but the most significant shaping ofperceptions and interpretation. On the hand, a script is an orderlyschema (Tolman,1967). For example, if a student could use differentroutes to reach school, then the schema would be going to school. Thescript would be the particular order of events they follow on the wayto school…

5.Verbalization, for example, mentioning words to associate with anindividual experience.

Memorizationmemorized experiences or events are never forgotten.

Organizingmaterials for instance use of maps enhances recalling ofinformation.

Visualaids, for example diagrams (Tolman,1967).

6.Identify and describe four stages of cognitive development outlinedby Jean Piaget.

Sensormotor is the first stage which ranges from birth until a child canspeak (Tolman,1967).

Preoperationalstage extends from when a child can talk up to 7 yrs.

Concreteoperational stage happens just before and is characterized by theapplication of logic.

FormalOperational Stage ranges from adolescence to adulthood and is markedby the use of logic to construct abstract ideas (Tolman,1967).

7. Piaget`s theory is about the nature and advancement of humanknowledge. The theory articulates that childhood plays a crucial rolein the development of intelligence. On the other hand, Vygotsky`ssocio-cultural theory says that learning is acquired through socialinteraction within the environment and the society (Tolman,1967).

Vygotsky`ssocio-cultural theory of human learning describes learning as asocial process and the origination of human intelligence in societyor culture. The major theme of Vygotsky`s theoretical framework isthat social interaction plays a fundamental role in the developmentof cognition (Tolman,1967).

Piaget`scognitive theory is about the nature of the elaboration of the humanintelligence (Tolman, 1967). He emphasizes the role of childhood inhuman intelligence. His arguments are broken into developmentalstages as the knowledge develops as the child moves from one stage tothe other. Each stage advances to the next as the child acquires moreand more knowledge into adulthood.

LevVygotsky believes that human intelligence is a result of socialinteractions (Tolman,1967). The richer the environment, the higherthe levels of knowledge acquired. Information is developed asindividual interacts with the society they are based. The kind ofstimulus that they are exposed to define the experience theyeventually learn (Tolman,1967).


Tolman,E. C. (1967). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York:Appleton-Century-Crofts.