HP2020 MAP-IT – African Americans with HTN

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HP2020MAP-IT – African Americans with HTN

HP2020MAP-IT – African Americans with HTN

Highblood pressure prevalence in African-Americans is among the highestin the world according to Fuchs (2011) on statistics based onregional demographics especially based on race difference. Accordingto WHO (2012), Hypertension (HTN) develops early in life among blacksthan in whites and is usually severe among blacks than in otherraces. HTN remains a high-risk disease characterized by difficulty inearly diagnosis due to limited symptoms that can directly beassociated with the disease. Owing to this fact, it is mostlyconsidered a “silent killer” in the healthcare world. In general,as Gillespire and Hurvitz (2013) stipulates, national data both indeveloped and developing economies indicate poor levels of treatmentand control of hypertension. Various researchers identify numerousfactors that contribute to low level of antihypertensive therapy andregular blood pressure checkups and control in the community

(U.SDepartment of Health and Human Services, 2004). To curb thesebarriers, it requires a higher level of intervention from the healthcare sector, private sector, the government and the community to joinforces in addressing the worrying statistics of HTN among AfricanAmericans. This paper provides the approach the coalition will useto explore data and technical information related to AfricanAmericans with hypertension (HTN) using the HP2020 MAP-IT toolanalyze available statistics and facts, produce a health andcommunication plan as well as an assessment plan for the targetpopulation.


Highblood pressure across the U.S.A continues to rise, and differentstatistics from some analyzes indicate the rate is even higher amongthe people of color. To combat this, there is a need to educate thehealthcare professionals effectively on the best way to treathypertension and cardiovascular disease as well as providingpractical education to patients. Using the HP2020 MAP-IT toolkitprovides a direct approach to identifying mechanisms to resolve thecurrent worsening situation while providing useful information to allstakeholders (ODPHP, 2015).

Analysisof the prevalence of HTN among African Americans

Fromthe interviews undertaken through distributing questionnaires,African Americans indicated to have the highest number of HTN casesamong people aged above 18 years. From the survey, 65% of therespondents were African Americans and 27% of the African Americanswho took part in the exercise had been diagnosed with HTN. Roughly,70% of the African Americans assessed established that they were notaware of their HTN status, as they had never been disguised. Of thosewho took part, 50% of those aware of their HTN condition did not takeproper medication. This makes the prevalence of HTN among thepopulation of African Americans interviewed 43%.


Theinitiative will target old age agencies, correction facilitiesmanaged by the state and the local authorizes especially those with ahigh number of Black American populations. Disabled citizen’salliances and affiliate organizations will be a good source ofprofessions and individuals with tangible experiences on the ground.Approaching cultural community centers, homeless shelters, and youthcoalitions will provide a broader basis of sourcing information withother members of the coalition formed.

Descriptionof the aggregate


Familyhistory especially genetic characteristics influence the variance offamily members’ likeliness to be positively diagnosed with HTN.Healthy normative within family history had high influence onpossibility of any of the family siblings to contract be diagnosedwith HTN at a time in life. Those with negative history of HTN in thefamily were less likely to have HTN conditions.


Sharedfamily environments also contribute to HTN occurrences. Naturalmembers of families had less chances of having HTN compared toadopted family members. There is also a strong correlation betweenparents and natural children compared to that of parents and adaptedchildren. This demonstrated that family environment was an importantfactor in determining HTN correlation among families than sharedgenes.


AfricanAmericans living in foster homes have high chances of beingpositively diagnosed with HTN compared to those living in normalhomes. The prevalence of HTN among the young adults was high forthose living in foster homes as opposed to young African Americansliving in normal homes.


Themost severe risks of THN among African Americans include beingoverweight for both the young and older adults, smoking behaviors,lack of exercises and physical activity. This was higher among olderadults and children. Most of the individuals interviewed were alsoless aware that too much salt in their diets and too much drinkingwas a big contributed to high HTN prevalence among the AfricanAmerican families. Other risk factors closely associated to manyAfrican American families include high stress level in life, specificethnic backgrounds, and history of HTN in the family.

Mobilizingthe Coalition

Bringingdifferent stakeholders together from various sectors will involveinviting people of different backgrounds and experiences andinterests towards the pressing situation of Africa American HTNsituation in the U.S. The mission of the coalition will be to comeup with affirmative actions to reduce the current high rate of HTLprevalence among African Americans. Ways to improve diagnosis andencourage regular checkup amongst the target group identified. Howthe role of professionals together with that of the public in generalredefined and a proper strategy drafted on how to curb the high rateof hypertension among Africa Americans U.S.


Organizationsapproached from the health sector will include primary careassociations specifically the hypertension health care providers suchas the American Heart Association. The State and localgovernment-owned health centers and their staff, the emergencymedical services sector, nursing homes, general and referralhospitals among many other heal care sector institutions andassociations.


Theproject’s main source of funding directed to the State healthdepartment will support the country and wide regional activities andengagement with different stakeholders. The business community willbe involved specifically in personally approaching business peopleand the corporate sector to foot different expenses as per theproposals agreed on. At various stages, depending on the needs of theactivities are undertaken, funds raised in a united way fromdifferent contributors.


Thecoalition will comprise of 20 leaders from different districts withinthe state of Connecticut states representing different organizationsand groups. The members will range from 50 to 200 mainly medicine andnursing professionals. Other healthcare professionals includingpsychologists, physicians and healthcare institutions administratorswill be welcome.

Meetingsfrequency and representation

Meetingsconducted weekly and spread across the state of Connecticut Stateand, at least, one general meeting monthly at Hartford City. Membersacceptance includes as individuals in their capacity and asrepresentatives of the organizations, they work with. The collisionwill democratically vote in the executive teams to lead the process.Members of Federal government and state government, the health caresector, social and the religion sector will be highly important tothe coalition.



Themost effective approach to address the problem will be a two-waystrategy. First, to use present government and private health carestructures to improve health care provision amongst diagnosed AfricanAmerican hypertension patients, secondly to increase awareness in thelarger community by the business sector, the religious sectorpartnering with education institutions, health organization. Thelevel of success achieved by the coalition is high. Manyorganizations are willing and ready to commit their resources to suchextensive nationwide initiatives that have a far-reaching impact onthe community. Finding key risk factors of HTN and how they can beaverted is the most important message passed out to the communities.

CurrentInterventions addressing the issue

Currently,the organizations dedicated to addressing heart-related conditionsinclude the World Health Organization, the Heart DiseasesOrganization, Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), andthe American Heart Association among many. Currently, differenthealthcare providers are enhancing nursing and midwifery capacity asa way to reach out to a larger number of African American populationsand encourage them to undertake the tests frequently. Healthprofessional organizations are also taking keen measures in HTNeducation. For example, the International Council of Nurses alreadyruns an NCD initiative aimed to mobilize over 19 million nurses andmidwives in HTN prevention and care provision (WHO, 2012).

AnticipatedLevel of success

Witha wide national capacity, the coalition targets to reach out to atleast 50 million African Americans using different institutions,organizations and both professional, social and religiousassociations. The program focuses on increase the level of awarenessof the prevalence of HTN among the blacks and the need to increasethe number of checkups and medical interventions from availablehealth care institutions. Early diagnosis of HTN will also improvethe public health status by preventing sudden death or costlytreatment processes when the disease advanced. Community culturaltraditions and beliefs addressed and their relationship to individualperception on medical intervention investigated.

Consequencesof not addressing the problem

HTNmortality rate continues to increase and only through early diagnosisand detection of HTN can the statistics change. Addressing HTNprevalence among African American will enable individuals to live ahealthier life and aware of their health status. The interventionwill also increase the health status of the society. The changes willdirectly affect the community economic status as resources wasted intreating HTN conditions dedicated in other health issues.



Somestrategic plan meetings undertaken across the state should focus onsetting up task forces dedicated to addressing different risk factorsof HTN disease among African Americans. First, the teams will have toundertake research on the need to address causes of NTN among thetargeted populations and find ways to increase awareness of thedangers of the disease. A survey of African American communities’physical environment undertaken such as living conditions of thepopulation’s households, access to proper diets and health careservices. Evidence-based interventions on how to reduce causes of HTNand limited access to healthcare determined in the early stages ofthe program.

Objectivesand goals

Theobjective of the coalition will be to contribute to the reduction ofConnecticut State HTN prevalence among African American communitiesby 10% in 5 years. To achieve this, it requires reaching out to over1.25 million individuals and creating awareness of the causes of HTN,the disease risk factors and the importance of early diagnosis. Thetargets to be set in different districts within Connecticut Statealign to the State government and other organizations general targetsto solving HTN. The project will aim to increase the level ofawareness of the importance of early detection from the current 70%among African American populations to at least 85% and increase thenumber of those diagnosed and taking the right medication from 51% to64% within the first year. In general, the coalition will focus onreducing the prevalence of HTN among African American populationsfrom the current 27% among adults diagnosed with HTN to at most 20%by the end of the first year.

Strategyand expected results

First,the coalition will ensure an increase of involving of adults inregular physical activities especially adults aged above 65 years.Currently, only 25% old African American aged over 65 years engage inregular exercises and physical activities. The coalitions will bemobile its members to ensure a nationwide increase of this ratio toat least 45% of the population above 65 years being able to engage inphysical activities. Progress monitoring will involve analyzing thenumber of adults enrolled in gymnasiums or health clubs in everystate. The coalition will also work towards increasing the number ofearly detection and diagnosis from 51% among African American adultsto at least 70% in the first five years. Once awareness strategiesare rolled out, the number of new diagnoses in health careinstitutions will be analyzed to determine whether an increase hastaken place.

Generalpublic awareness through reaching out to the general masses on therisk factors of HTN, the importance of early detection and diagnosisand the need for proper health care access. A combination ofincreasing health care providers’ skills and engagement inincreasing awareness, increasing public knowledge about the risks ofHTN and the need for lifestyle changes will be used. Religiouscommunities and many other public setups will be involved inenhancing awareness of the prevalence of HTN among African Americansand the importance of the interventions sought.

Evaluationof the Implementation Plan


Theagenda of the coalition will be to focus on African Americanpopulations especially children, the youth and the adults above 65years. Most focus will be towards the women who in many regionsrecord high statistical figure regarding the prevalence and lack ofaccess to proper health care. The program will be run nationwidetargeting areas with a high population rate of African Americans.

Detailsof the implementation plan

Themain message is to encourage a healthy and physically activelifestyle amongst the children the youth and the adults aged over 65years. For adults, early diagnosis will be prioritized and awarenessof the dangers of HTN. For the other populations especially theworking age’s groups, engaging in proper lifestyles such as eatinghealthy and balanced diets, being physically active and exercisingregularly will be encouraged. The tool will also include training tothe health care medical professionals to be frequently undertaken asper the agreed timelines and to the support provided by the partiesinvolved.

Effectivenessof the plan

Themain benefit of maintaining a healthy lifestyle is to reduce the riskfactors associated with HTN. Secondly, being physically activereduces chances of contracting any of the common pulmonary diseases. Obesity being high among children and the youth, increasing awarenessin schools and among parents will help to encourage children to eathealthily and engage in physical activities.


Themiddle-aged populations are less likely to increase their engagementin physical activities due to the nature of their jobs and lack oftime. Children may also be engulfed in indoor activates rather thanoutdoor due to lack of space due to their type of environments.Packing different stakeholders to convey the same message withoutconflict will require continuous collaboration and frequent meetingwith all parties in the coalition to ensure consistency.


Theinternet will be a reliable tool to use to spread out the messagenations wide. The use of social media platforms will play animportant part especially in accessing the youth and young adultseffectively. TV and radio will effectively enable the message to getout to the masses. Interviews, discussion panels, programs undertakenin different radio stations, and TV programs should pass out thecoalition message to the public. Print media including the newsprintsdailies, magazines to reach a wider part of the population. Theinternet and print media will be the most frequently used due to thelow costs involved compared to advertising on TV and radio. Allactivities undertaken by the coalition should be published on theprogram website and social media accounts. The information will beavailable to all stakeholders and the public.

ImplementationPlan Evaluation

Asurvey will be used to analyze the coalition strengths andweaknesses. The same will also be used to evaluate whether allstakeholders agree the process and the steps being taken. Anyconflicts will be resolved from the feedback received from the surveyanalysis. First, using a survey questionnaire to be distributed toall members, the questionnaire will seek to collect informationregarding attendance frequency of the members, the level of awarenessof the objectives of the coalition to the members, the collaborationprovided and its effectiveness individually.

Themembers will have to indicate their commitment to the coalitionmission and vision. The survey will also determine differentcharacteristics of the coalition leaders, especially in thesubcommittee. This will seek to collect members understanding of thecommittee commitment to the coalition mission, appropriateness of thetime given and task completion rates, planning, strategy executioneffectiveness, organizational, and communication capabilities of theexecutive and committees leaders. The members will also vet othermember’s commitment to the coalition mission, the level ofengagement in planning, implement programs, and undertakeevaluations.


Questionnaires:High Blood Pressure Awareness Questionnaire

___ Date Completed:

Yearof birth:__

KindlyAnswer the Questions as per the Instructions.

YourParticipation will contribute in increasing awareness andunderstanding of the prevalence of high blood pressure among AfricanAmericans in the State of Connecticut, USA.

General Information

  1. What is your Residential Address

  2. Sex

Male Female

  1. Race:

African American Other

Medical Background

  1. Have your been diagnosed before for High Blood PressureYES NO

  1. If No, how often do you go for checkup

Less than every 3 months More than 3 months

Family History

  1. Has any member of your family been diagnosed with High blood pressure YES NO

  1. Are you a natural child by birth or through Adaption YES NO

Bio Data

  1. Weight ___

  2. Height &shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy___


  1. What type of physical activity do you do currently







  1. How often do you do physical activity?

1-3 times a week

3-5 times a week

5-7 times a week



  1. Do you smoke cigarettes?YES NO

Awareness of High Blood Pressure

  1. Have you participated in High Blood Pressure education before



Fuchs,F.D. (2011). Why Do Black Americans Have Higher Prevalence ofHypertension? An Enigma Still Unsolved. InternationaAHA,57(3), 373-241.

Gillespire,D.C. &amp Hurvitz, K.A. (2013). Prevalenceof Hypertension and Controlled Hypertension — United States,2007–2010.Retrieved 12 March 2016 from :http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6203a24.htm

ODPHP.(2015). HealthyPeople: MAP-IT. Retrieved 12 March 2016 from: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/tools-and-resources/program-planning/Plan

U.SDepartment of Health and Human Services. (2004). The seventhreport of the joint national committee on prevention, detection,evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure.Retrieved 12 March 2016 from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/jnc7full.pdf

WorldHealth organization. (2012). Enhancing nursing and midwifery capacityto contribute to the prevention, treatment and management ofnon-communicable diseases. HumanResource for Health Observers,Issue No 12. Retrieved 12 March 2016 from: http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/observer12.pdf