Human Resource Development7
Task 1 4
1a. Comparison of Different Learning Styles 4
Honey and Mumford Learning Styles 4
Fleming’s Model: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic 5
Behaviorists, Constructivists and Cognitivist 6
b. Role of Learning Curve and Importance of Transfer Learning to Workplace 6
Importance of Transfer Learning 7
c) Contribution of Different Learning Styles and theories on Planning and Designing of Learning/Training Event 7
Task 2 8
a) Comparison and Discussion of the Training Need of Staff at Different Levels of Organization 9
b) Advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in an organization 9
Performance Appraisal 10
Role Playing 10
c) Use a Systematic Approach to Planning to Train 11
Task 3 12
a) Evaluation Plan 12
b) How to Carry out Evaluation 13
c) Review of Success of Evaluation Method 14
Task 4 15
a) Role of Government in Training and Development 15
b) Impact of development of the competency movement in the public and private sectors 15
c) Contribution of Contemporary Training Initiatives Introduced By the UK Government in Human Resources Development of an Organization 16
Task 11a.Comparison of Different Learning StylesHoneyand Mumford Learning Styles
Thedifferent learning styles developed by Honey and Mumford relied onthe work of Kolb, and they were grouped into four differentcategories including activist, theorist, pragmatist and reflector(Honey and Mumford, 1989). The four are among the learning approachesthat individuals prefer and mostly recommended. The first group ismade of activists, who are individuals who learn through doing. Thesepersons have to get dirty and are known to use the open-mindedapproach to learning. These persons fully involve themselves and seekto get new experiences each time. The second group that is made up oftheorists include persons who like to comprehend the theory that isbehind every action. These group different from the activists wholearn by doing they prefer already developed concepts, models andfacts when engaging in the learning process. These individuals prefermostly to analyze and synthesize information as they draw in newinformation in a systematic and logical theory (Honey and Mumford,1989).
Pragmatistsare more like a bridge between the first two groups of learners, theactivists and the theorists. These individuals seek to put what theyhave learnt into practicability. In most cases, they do not preferabstract concepts and games unless they have a way of putting ideasinto action in their lives. They are known to be experimenters andpersons who like trying out new ideas, theorist, and techniques andoften would want to find out if they work (Honey and Mumford, 1992).
Theother group that Honey and Mumford (1982) discusses in the learningstyles entails the reflectors. These persons mostly learn throughobservation and thinking about what happened. In most cases, theyprefer watching from the sidelines and come in to assist with atchingfrom different perspectives and getting to the right conclusion.
Fleming’sModel: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic
Fleming’smodel (2001) postulates that there are three types of learning styleVisual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. The model proposed by Fleming is anexpansion of the earlier notions of sensory modalities that wereproposed by Barbe. According to this model, the visual learners arethose that prefer seeing as a mode of learners. These writers opt forvisual aids, which ideally represent the methods other than words andgraphs or symbols. On the other hand, the auditory learners getconcepts best through listening, and the methods entail lectures,discussions and using tapes (Leite, Svinicki and Shi, 2010).Additionally, there is tactile or the kinesthetic learners who mainlylearn through experience. These individuals prefer touching, movingand exploring. The tactile learners can be compared only to theactivists under the Honey and Mumford learning styles. Just like theactivists, the tactile learners, also opt to learn throughexperimentation (Baykan and Naçar, 2007).
Behaviorists,Constructivists and Cognitivist
Accordingto the behaviorists theory, new behavior or the changes in behaviorare those that are acquired through the relationships that occurbetween the responses and stimuli (Ertmer and Newby, 1993). Accordingto the cognitive theory, information processing leads tocomprehension and long term retaining of knowledge. On account ofconstructivists theory, knowledge is built through the individual andworld experiences (Cooper, 1993). Constructivists are more like thepragmatics as they prefer practicability that comes up throughexperiences.
b.Role of Learning Curve and Importance of Transfer Learning toWorkplace
Learningcurve is representative of a continuous process that entailsimprovements that are cumulatively by experience (Argote, 2012). Foran organization to be effective and perfect in its operation,especially when executing a new task, application of learning curveis unavoidable. By building experience in execution of the task,learning curve assists the employees to concentrate on things thatare significant to development of new skills, value addition ansetting of career path. In instances where businesses are setting newbusiness strategies and core values, the employees often face newchallenges in adjusting to the new environment. Owing to this, theemployees have to adapt new learning curve to help in adjusting thetechnical skills and the various business competencies to match theset standard level (Argote, 2012). Through the learning curve, theemployees are capable of getting new practical experiences,performance review and coaching to help them identify their areas ofexpertise and ultimately craft a real career path.
Inthe learning curve, there are indication of continuous experiences,which is in progress, the learning and efficiency increases whilecarrying out the job. This implies that experiences are capable ofbringing down the time while increasing the level of expertise andmore production.
Importanceof Transfer Learning
Theline managers and the performance coaches do discuss with theemployees to share and transfer different issues that regardknowledge among them include the transfer of knowledge onperformance, the different areas of improvement and the requirementsof a firm (Pan and Yang, 2010). The transfer of knowledge via meanslike the off-the-job training like workshops or conferences arehelpful to employees as they help in the learning and development ofskills (Pan and Yang, 2010). For most of the organizations, it iscritical that skills are built, comprehension of core values beinstilled, and performance happens accordingly. Through bettercomprehension and enhanced knowledge, employees can boost theirefficiency levels and managers can easily find the best alternativesfor every other responsibility and position.
Effectivetransfer of knowledge and proper use of learning curve helps theemployees to identify the performance level of technical skill aswell as business competency (Egan, Yang and Bartlett, 2004). Theemployees can effectively set a career path, comprehensively engagein the decision-making process in an efficient manner to ensureoverall efficiency in performance.
c)Contribution of Different Learning Styles and theories on Planningand Designing of Learning/Training Event
Thedifferent learning theories are integral in the process of planningand designing of learning or training event. The learning theoriesare critical as they can provide a conceptual framework for thedifferent learning objectives and requirements. The choice of thelearning style to be used is largely dependent on the way that theemployees prefer the most and the rate at which the firm need theemployees to adapt to the new situation (Egan, Yang and Bartlett,2004). This then implies that prior to the selection and carrying outthe training events for the employees, there is need to analyze thelearning styles, and the theories have to be properly analyzed too,and requisite adjustments be made in accordance with the expectationof the firm and the desires of the firm too (Clark and Lyons, 2010).Therefore, a successful study on the learning preferences and thetheoretical evidence that exist can contribute to the success of HRevent organizing.
TheLink between the Learning Style, Theory, and Event
Often,working with just a single style may prove to be ineffective andtherefore, a combination of the multiple learning styles can be veryeffective especially when designing the learning events. Differentfirms have different needs, and they include improving the differentcapabilities and skills like the leadership skills, the ability tomake right decisions, teamwork, and efficiency among others (Egan,Yang and Bartlett, 2004). The needs often are known to becharacteristic of training and development necessities. The learningtheories are essential as they help in defining the learning types,structures and provide theoretical explanations. The learning stylesdictate the efficiency of learning and can be designed with mostappropriate targeted objectives. Ideally, it then emerges thatlearning event is the implementation of the improvement expectation.
Comparison and Discussion of the Training Need of Staff at Different Levels of Organization
Inany organization, there are different levels of existence and foreach of these levels different needs exist. For the staffs at alllevels, there is a need for any organization to come up with friendlyworking environment. Moreover, for the management level and thecustomer service level, the organization needs to create a practicallearning environment that allows for team building, decision makingand enhances teamwork and collaboration (Egan, Yang and Bartlett,2004). Additionally, the organization can have workshops and theon-the-job training programs to help in building the skills andevaluation. Additionally, the organization can consider queuemanagement as part of fulfilling the needs of the employees. In this,the organization is to train the staff on proper management of queuethus minimizing the total time for waiting. The organization can alsoconsider providing an expert solution to the staffs at differentlevels. Through expert solution, the staff is capable of workingefficiently and assisting the customers to get their needs. For theline managers, the organization can consider performance review andappraisal as a means of motivating the managers to work effectivelyand cut on cost thus adding value to the products or services thatare offered.
Advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in an organization
Inthe organization, there are different training facilities that areused to support the training methods applied. First training methodis counseling which is used to help the employees build a successfulcareer path. Additionally, there is performance appraisal that isemployed to help the employees in identifying the performance levelas well as the areas that need improvement. Other trainings includethe off-job training methods like conferences and workshops that helpin developing the practical skills and knowledge and efficiency(Gerber,Nel and Van Dyk, 1987).
Additionally,through performance appraisal, the organization is able of gaugingthe performance level of the employees and sees the best way toimprove the areas of weaknesses. However, the performance appraisalmay demotivate the performing employees especially when the processmakes them feel disgraced (Gregersen, Hite and Black, 1996).
Additionally,through role-playing, the employees can find out the differentrequirements in the different management levels or roles (Gerber,Nel and Van Dyk, 1987).The disadvantage of role-playing is that the employees can getreluctant and nervous regarding the different roles that may end upin degradation of the performance.
Theemployees get to know more about the firm, in regards to the mission,vision and values as well as the role and corporate culture of thefirm(Gerber, Nel and Van Dyk, 1987).The disadvantage of the process is that the statements that are madeduring the process may differ from the real thing given the negativeimpression they may present later.
Throughthe workshops, employees get materials to practice and get idea abouttheir skills and performance requirements (Gerber,Nel and Van Dyk, 1987).The weakness of this method is that it is expensive naturally andhighly depends on the level of participants to absorb the message.
Use a Systematic Approach to Planning to Train
Theapproach will be in a systematic manner and for this concentrationwill be on a problem-solving training program that will assistindividuals to make proper decisions. First, employees are given areal problem. The employees then are required to make the necessaryanalysis and subsequently find the possible solutions. Then there isan assessment administered to the entire team where the managementwill be offered the opportunity to evaluate the selected solutions.This will be an ongoing process, and the employees will be welcomedto come up with new organizational problem scenario in regards tocustomer service improvement, the efficiency of production, workingrelations of the employees, their motivation and efficiency inmanagement. Through the training event, employees will get energizedand ultimately be part of the decision-making process and henceincrease their ability to provide realistic analysis and solution tothe problems presented.
Evaluationof the Success of Training Process
Whendoing the training, the first process is invitation of the staffmembers where I will introduce every other member who is in themanagement team. The team is then given a real problem to solve afterwhich there is question and answer session for the staff to affirmthat they clearly comprehend the scenario. Individuals are alsoserved with proper instructions and the next day they are needed topresent their findings and then discussion session follows (Clarkand Lyons, 2010).The individuals are then to form a group of at least five to help inanalysis of the solution within a given time. The findings from thegroups are shared with the managers and then suggestions on areasthat need improvements are given. Additionally, the findings willneed to be reshaped and then final submission shared and examined bythe entire team. Through the question and answer session, themanagers can then tell the most appropriate solution that need to beundertaken.
Inevaluating the outcome of training managers, different methodologiescan be used to judge the level of outcome, efficiency levels, andeffectiveness of the event(Clark and Lyons, 2010).Additionally, the top management is deeply concerned about thesuccess of training program and thus different components shall beapplied in the assessment process and the costs and benefits are themain determinant of whether the process continues or not. One of theassessment approach that shall be applicable in my case is the “Fivetiered approach”. In applying the framework, a program is evaluatedin five different levels and then the actual outcome with theanticipated outcome of the program (Clarkand Lyons, 2010).
Needs Assessment-At this level, the question regarding the actual problem is answered. At this point, the answer provided dictates whether there is need to have a training program.
Monitoring and Accountability- at this level, the main answers that are sought out are in regards to the participants and the types and kinds of services which are delivered.
Clarification on the program- at this level, the evaluation that is done at different need level are meant to answer how more effective the event could be made.
Progress- At this stage, identification, and evaluation of the progress in regards to the answers given by participants are given. This section seeks to gauge the competency of participants in the process.
Program Impact- At this point, there is experimental approach that is applied and used to evaluate the long-term effect of the training program.
How to Carry out Evaluation
Incarrying out the evaluation, critical documentation is essential. Inthis case, the evaluation process that is to be employed will mainlybe qualitative in nature. In evaluating, three methods will be usedin the process. First is the trainer/trainee feedback process wherethe feedback from the trainer and trainees are considered upon endingof the training. The opinions and the feedbacks that are got arenecessary to help in realizing accuracy as well as ensuring realisticfinding in regards to the training program (Oelke et al., 2009).Through this, the managers can also establish the level of effect ofthe parties.
Thesecond method of evaluation is observation where the activities andparticipation of the employees are clearly observed to find out theeffects of both internal and external factors on the training event.The happenings that are observed are critical in affirming whetherthe process was positive or negative in nature.
Gaugingof the customer comments is also another means through whichevaluation is conducted. Through the comments, it is easy to confirmhow effective the employees apply their learning in customer service.Through the training events, the employees also get to know much inregards to the different factors that are in the environment of anorganization including the problems that customer service faces.Further, the customer comments will also state the likelihood ofnegative or positive changes occurring.
Review of Success of Evaluation Method
Theevaluation method that was applied was he Five Tiered evaluationmethod that was essentially useful in evaluating the success of eventwithin the real life-working environment. The success of the methodis evident given that the system evaluated the expected benefit andthe actual benefit to help in sorting out the diversion andfeasibility of the training event. The assessment the employees andthe managers had a chance to provide their problems and criticalactivities regarding the training event that largely affected thedevelopment process. From the Five Tiered Method, it was easy tofigure out the cost-benefit ratio and decide whether to have itprogress or some improvements to be made. The management found it asuccessful assessment system that helps in critical analysis of allthe steps and policies that are adopted by the human resourcemanagers. While using the system, more logical and analyticalimprovements are made to help receive a better output and result inperformance.
Role of Government in Training and Development
Governmentsoften play critical roles in training and development of employeesand so is the UK government. Through government, the trainingprograms are offered and administered by the expert trainer to ensurethat employees can develop and reach the bear minimum standard ofperformance (Lee, 2002). For any firm that accrues benefit to agovernment in a country, it ought to be concerned about theperformance and level of deliverability of such firms. In ensuringthat sanity prevails, the government has to ensure that operations ofthe company are set at bear minimum standard (Lee, 2002). Ideally,the involvement of government in training is critical as it ensuresthat employees can pursue knowledge in a working environment. Thegovernment also support the HR departments of firms by setting therules, regulations and policies that define the industry and thedepartment in every other firm (Wong et al., 2001).
Impact of development of the competency movement in the public and private sectors
Developmentof competency movement has impacted the public and private sectors indifferent ways. First, through competency movement, the other firmsare increasingly concerned about the gap that exists in performance(Horton, 2000). Private firms have been able to invest more toincrease their competency and gain competitive advantage. Mostcompanies are working tirelessly to ensure that there is no fall intheir level of competitiveness as such the fall means poor quality inservice, low motivation for the employees and inefficiency in theproduction levels (Rubin et al., 2007). Most of the companies providesteeper learning curve to ensure the quick development of theexpertise. Learning is progressive, and qualification is given to theindividuals to help them grow their level of confidence. Through thedevelopment of competency movement, the employees are increasinglygetting more motivated and their level of diversification increases(Rubin et al., 2007).
Contribution of Contemporary Training Initiatives Introduced By the UK Government in Human Resources Development of an Organization
Thecontemporary training initiatives were taken by the UK government toensure that small and medium firms industry get useful training anddevelopment program (Matlay, 2004). These programs are tailored in amanner that stability and growth in the economy are easily realizedthrough them. Training that is offered is vocational in nature andhelps the persons to learn quickly about the different parts of thebusinesses (Matlay, 2004). With an understanding of the presentscenario and through the future prospect, the UK government designsdifferent qualitative training programs to meet the needs ofdifferent firms. The contemporary training is often quickerespecially when working in the vulnerable area (Matlay, 2004). Giventhat economy is affected by the performance of the employees in allthe firms, the government has increasingly been putting all thepossible efforts to help design the best learning options for thefirms in line with the learning needs.
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