IdaJean Orlando Theorist
IdaJean Orlando was a nursing theorist who came up with a theory usingher research findings. She was a first generation American tracingher origins back in Italy and born in 1926. In 1947, she earned herdiploma in nursing, in 1951 a BS in public health nursing, and in1954 a Master of Arts in mental nursing health(Alligood&Marriner-Tomey, 2010).
Orlandonursing process theory is a process principled in the relationshipbetween a patient and a nursing staff at a specific place andspecific time. Many interactions involve patient’s behavior andnursing staff reaction in the due course until the patient’s needfor help is clarified. She developed this theory back in the 1950sduring her tenure as the principal investigator at Yale School ofNursing project (Alligood et al., 2010). As noted above, her theorywas targeting to contribute to the concerns about patients-nurserelationship, knowledge development limited to nursing, and thenursing staff’s profession role and identity.
Hertheory is founded on the observation she made during a period ofthree years when she observe over 2,000 nurse-patients interactions.From these observations, she classified them either good or bad. Byreviewing her notes concerning good nursing interactions, sheidentified that nurses were able to recognize the patient distressesand happenings from their viewpoint. It was also clear that eventhough the nurse identified why the patient was distressed, withoutthe help of a nurse, he/she could not relieve the stress. Orlando’stheory consist one of the main themes as the nurse-patientinteraction being the key factor as it can be related from herfindings. This nurse-patient interaction is however mainly dictatedby the patient’s participation in the process.
Byreflecting on the analysis of her research, Orlando invented anursing process with five steps which include assessment, diagnosis,planning, implementation, and evaluation (Alligood et al., 2010).Assessment involves identifying what the patient requires beingassisted. This information is drawn from the patient’s behavior.After evaluation, a diagnosis to address this need is evaluated. Itinvolves identifying the requirement for a succession of the desiredhelp. To carry out this, a plan is required. It entails goals setabout relieving the patient’s distress. The proposed goals are thenimplemented. After implementation, an evaluation is undertaken todetermine how effective the need is addressed and if rather if it isaddressed at all.
Thistheory was formulated in such a time when nurses’ roles were notstipulated. Nursing staffs were often uncertain of the objectivesthey were supposed to attain. Due to this uncertainty, it wascumbersome to evaluate the performance of nurses. This also impliesthat teaching nursing students was not a clear cut. By coming up withthese processes, Orlando made qualified nurse and formed the basis ofa more defined nurse’s plan role. It made a remarkable impact inthe nursing world by helping to change the nursing staff’s focusfrom therapeuticverdict, and reflex activities considered withoutinvolving patient’s experience and the success the patient wasassisted by the nursing staff’s action.
Initially,nurses were just aimed at going through the process of taking care ofa hospital, organizational, or disease demands (Alligood et al.,2010). However, after that, the interaction between the patient andthe nursing staffs was considered vital. The present of nurses in theprocess played a much bigger role in the progression of a patient. Italso cultivated a more urge for nurses to draw the immediate orientedidea of exercise rather than just caring for an injury or disease ofa patient, hence hastening the process of recovery.
Alligood,M., &Marriner-Tomey, A. (2010). Nursingtheorists and their work.Maryland Heights, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier.