INDUSTRIAL & MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

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INDUSTRIAL&amp MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

06-91-435DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

MuhammadJalal Toru

103529594,

Received9th February 2016

Abstract

The experiment focuses on thedifferent factors that affect magnetism using a basic experiment.While doing the experiment, critical questions arise. First, thestudy seeks to establish whether the number of times that the wire iswrapped around the nail affect the strength of the nail.Additionally, the study also established whether the thickness or thelength of the nail affect the strength of the electromagnets.Critical to the study is to find out whether the thickness of thewire affects the power of the electromagnet. Whether the differentbattery sizes affect the strength of magnetism is a an issue ofinquiry.

Keywords:Magnetism,Electromagnetic strength, wrappings, battery, turns, thickness

This experiment is done to find out the different factors affecting magnetism with a basic experiment. The questions that arise are. Does the number of times you wrap the wire around the nail affect the strength of the nail? Does the thickness or length of the nail affect the electromagnets strength? Does the thickness of the wire affect the power of the electromagnet? Do different battery sizes affect the strength of magnetism?

  1. Variables

Response:

The amount of paperclips picked up by the experimental electromagnet.

Factors:

  • Different power batteries in first experiment

  • Number of turns in the wire for the second experiment

  • Different sizes of wire used for the third experiment.

Controlled Variables:

  • Same type of paperclips,

  • Experiment done in the same environment for all experiments.

  1. Design of the Experiment

List of materials

•Large iron nails about 3, 4, 5 inches.

•About 3 feet of thin coated copper wire with different thickness.

•3 Fresh batteries with size (D, A, AA)

•Some paper clips that are used as magnetic objects.

•Plastic bowl.

Experimental Design:

There are different types of magnets, the major one being the ones that are found on refrigerators. Those are called permanent magnets. The one being used in this experiment is known as an electromagnet because it can be turned on and off according to convenience of the user. By passing current through the wire, it arranges the molecules in such a pattern that it turns into a magnet and attracts certain substances.

Steps for conducting the experiment:

  1. Take a copper wire and wrap it around the nail without overlapping the wire and leave about 8 inches of the wire on both ends.

  2. Make sure to cut the wire into proper size and take the plastic coating off the edges of the wire.

  3. Connect the edges of the wire to the positive and negative sides of the battery. This will give you a working electromagnet.

  4. Dip the nail part into the paperclips and they should start sticking to it.

Procedure 1: Effect of different battery sizes

Three different batteries are used. The first one is A type. The second one is AA type and the third one is D type. By using different type of batteries, the amount of paper clips picked up is counted to measure the strength of each battery. All the other conditions are kept constant so that there are no deviations due to other factors. The experiment is repeated three times for each battery type and then an average of the three is taken to get better readings for the experiment.

Number of paper clips picked up:

Attempt 1: 15

Attempt 2: 24

Attempt 3:9

Average of attempts: 16

Procedure 2: Effect of number of turns of wire

For this procedure, only one type of battery is used. The factors changed are the number of turns on the nail. For the first one 10 turns are given, second one 15 turns and third one 20 turns are done. By using these conditions, other factors are kept constant and like the previous experiment, three attempts on each part are taken and then averaged to get better value.

Number of paper clips picked up:

Attempt 1: 12

Attempt 2: 17

Attempt 3: 25

Average of attempts: 18

Procedure 3: Effect of thickness of copper wire

In the last procedure, the type of battery and number of turns are kept the same. The factors changed are the thickness of the copper wire. Using several different sizes, the numbers of paper clips picked up are recorded and the experiment is conducted in a similar manner to the previous one. By using these conditions, other factors are kept constant and like the previous experiment, three attempts on each part are taken and then averaged to get better value.

Number of paper clips picked up:

Attempt 1: 15

Attempt 2: 22

Attempt 3: 26

Average of attempts: 21

Factors: 3 Base Design:3, 4Resolution: III

Runs: 4Replicates: 1Fraction: 1/2

Blocks: 1Center pts (total): 0

* NOTE * Some main effects are confounded with two-way interactions.

Design Generators: C = AB

Defining Relation: I = ABC

Alias Structure

I + ABC

A + BC

B + AC

C + AB

Design Table

Run A B C

1 – – +

2 + – –

3 – + –

4 + + +

  1. Statistical Analysis

Experiment Graphs

From this, the residuals versus the fits are at 0.00. The residual value is -1.0 and the fitted value is 1.0.

The residuals are always 0.0 and the percentage from this graph is positive.

There is a high effect on the treatments AB, and there is not effect in the treatment A in response C.

In response B, there is an effect in treatment A but no effect in treatment AB with standardized effect of 12.71

In response A, the percentage versus the residual curve is a linear one. This is because there is linearity in the factors being considered and therefore, they do not fit the line because always residuals should be equal to 0.0

The residual versus order plot is also a clear indication that in response B, there is significance of the data provided and therefore, the analysis being carried out is important.

This histogram indicates the frequency versus the residuals and as a matter of fact there is both the negative side and the positive side which comes to 0.0 when added together showing that there is significance in the experiment for response A.

This graph shows that there is no significance in the standardized effect in response B at α = 0.05.

4. Conclusion

Magnetism is affected by various factors. The experiment carried out aimed to find out the effects of various factors on the magnetism. In answering the question, an experiment was conducted that sought to answer various questions about the concept of magnetism. The first question that was being addressed was the effect of a number of wrappings of the wire around the nail on its magnetic strength. Next, the question sought to answer whether the thickness of the wire had an effect on the power of an electromagnet. Finally, the experiment sought to understand the impact of battery sizes on the strength of magnetism. In getting answers to the questions, the experiment was conducted where variables were determined, and the factors tested. In the experiment, it was evident that the number of turns of the wire on the nail was directly proportional to the strength of magnetism. As the experiment was carried out, the results did depict that with the increase in the number of turns of the wire, there was a corresponding increase in the level of magnetism. The plots do reflect the direct proportionality when it comes to the number of turns and the subsequent increase in the magnetism. Further, the experiment carried out did show that with the increase in the level of voltage, there was a corresponding increase in the level of electromagnetism. For the experiment carried out, the increase was due to the increase in the number of batteries. An increase in batteries does reflect an increase of voltage that corresponds to an increase in the level of electromagnetism. Finally, results of the experiment did depict that the size of the core may not have a significant impact on the degree of magnetism.

6. Recommendation

Findings from the experiment do bring out vital aspects when it comes to the concept of electromagnetism. The experiment does bring out significant aspects when it comes to the entire concept of electromagnetism. Knowledge of the same can be applied to designing devices for use. Engineers need to employ skills and knowledge in the field to come up with designs that are efficient. For example, when coming up with an electromagnetic device, they need to consider the different factors that would affect the degree of magnetism to achieve the best results. The experiment that was carried out aimed at finding out the various factors influencing magnetism. Knowledge of the same is a prerequisite in coming up with designs of that stature. Information derived from the experiment is helpful specifically as it offers insight into factors to be considered when designing any electromagnetic devices. With knowledge of the same, any variations in the results of the experiment need to be followed by troubleshooting for the changes of the factors that may be affecting the experiment. Through the same, it will be possible to get designs that are efficient for the work they are meant to execute. In carrying out the experiment, errors were identified. The errors may have been brought about by nuisance factors. Some of the results derived may have been affected by the same. However, for future experimental works, it could be mandatory to conduct the experiment in a way that avoids the factors that may have affected the results. Through the same, more accurate results can be derived that can be used to make conclusive decisions.

References

[1] Ayad Ahmed Nour El Islam, A. R. (2014). Simulations and Experiments on Electromagnetic Induction Separator by excitation variation. Aust. J. Basic &amp Appl. Sci., 8(1): 351-357.

[2] Cavicchi, E. (2002). Series and Parallel Experimenting with Electromagnets.

[3] Thompson, S. P. (1890). The Telegraph Journal and Electrical Review.