Mid-term exam

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  1. Causes of urban growth in the United States.

Improvedstandards of living and increased average incomes has made itpossible for many Americans, to have the ability to pay for traveland work at long distances and be able to commute back to their homesafter work. There is increased spending in the infrastructure thatincludes both electricity and roads is something that has not existedin many parts of the United States has led to urban growth.

  1. The living conditions during the early industrial cities and the cities that were planned to replace them.

Manyfamilies were forced to share their small homes with other familiesor even complete strangers because they were not in a financialposition to own their own homes. This forced the planning of improvedliving conditions and improved average income with sanitation being asignificant goal in new cities.

  1. The direction where the Chicago river flowed and the reason why it was changed.

Until1900, the Chicago River flowed directly to Lake Michigan, where theresidents got their drinking water from, however it contained sewagethat was generated from the city. There was a need to change thedirection of the flow so as to prevent the yearly deaths that wererecorded as a result of water born diseases that the polluted rivercontained.

  1. Chicago’s attitude to water treatment and environment in the late 19th century and how this reflected the way it dealt with water and waste treatment.

Inthe late 19thcentury, Chicago’s attitude towards water treatment and thenvironment was considered poor. This was a period of massivepopulation growth that saw an upsurge of infectious diseases thatcame with the poor sanitary and water treatment systems that existedduring that period.

  1. How living in “Back of the Yards” felt like.

Therewas extreme insecurity to the residents who lived in “Back of theYards” that was primarily caused by gang groups that conflictedagainst each other. Due to this insecurity, many people especiallythe young individuals lost their lives during such shootings.

  1. What happened at the Haymarket in Chicago that reflected the attitudes of the 1880s

Therewas bomb blast and massacre of labor workers who on strike and wereholding demonstrations for better pay and also good working hours.The police shootings during that day and the previous day, reflectedinsensitivity towards worker’s working conditions by the thengovernment.

  1. The relationships between ethnic groups in Chicago during the latter half of the 19th century.

Ethnicrelationships were considered to be hostile in the latter half of the19thcentury where different ethnic groups could not tolerate each other.During this period, there was massive population growth by differentethnic groups who were in search of a better life in the UnitedStates, which was having an attractive economy.

  1. The initial motivation for the founding of Pullman and how the city changed after the establishment.

Theinitial motivation of founding Pullman was to offer comfort andluxury in the railroad transport. This provided the city with modernamenities and better working conditions to the workers consecutivelyimproving their living conditions.

  1. The meaning to the term “‘disassembly line,’ in Chicago and its significance to future manufacturing

Itis a manufacturing tool that allows each worker to perform only aspecific task during the process of manufacturing repeatedly. Thismade the mass production of goods fast as well as allowed workers toperfect their skills by repeating their duties on a regular basis.

  1. Woodward and Hull plan for the city after the Detroit fire of 1805

Afterthe devastating fire of 1805, Woodward and Hull plan was toreconstruct the Detroit city by promoting urban designs that werespecifically based on radial avenues.

  1. Two major differences between the United State’s cities to those of other parts of the world.

Thecities of the United States unlike its counterparts are urban regionswith autonomous powers. The cities of the United States wereoriginally designed for a car kind of lifestyle with many shoppingoutlets that allows one walk easily.

  1. The concept of global cities and an example of an alpha city.

Theconcept of global cities comes from geography studies and the meaningof this term is that it is a significant node to the global economicsystems. Two examples of global or alpha cities are Tokyo or the cityof New York, which have disproportionate control over globalbusiness.

  1. Two characteristics of an information dominated society

Technologicaladvancements and improved communication are two characteristics of aninformation dominated society.

  1. An urban social boundary, and how it affects the way people live and use the city

Anurban social boundary is a regional boundary that is created tocontrol urban slump. It affects how the people live and use the cityby mandating for high density urban development in the area insidethe boundary and mandating low density urban development in the areaoutside the boundary.

  1. The political context for the term ‘inner city’

Thepolitical context of inner city is the high minority populationdensities that typically exist in the outer suburbs than the innersuburbs.

  1. Two things that maps don’t tell us about a city

Topographicalfeatures and smaller waterways are two examples of things that cannotbe shown in maps about a city.

  1. The core idea on the essay about “Ground”

Technologyis the core idea.

  1. Interpreting the statement Confident architecture told the citizens what the past meant.

Thestatement means that an architect employed all existing materials,knowledge or techniques when designing a building and suchinformation could easily be communicated to anyone in future.

  1. Why a driver in Rio de Janeiro sees children as invisible after a few journeys, and what this indicates about a society.

Thisis because Rio de Janeiro has extensive road systems that extend tolong distances. Most of these roads are tolled roads which aretypically maintained by individuals who are regarded to be privateconcessioners.

  1. Why the US-Canada border look straight on maps but vary so much on the ground

Thisis because of temperature change as a function of location where soiltemperatures changes from one month to another affected by solarradiation or rainfall.

  1. How information and technological devices change the way cities look or function.

Advancementover the years in information and communication technologies has hadsignificant impact to the way cities look or function. Computer is animportant technology that has assisted millions of city developers indeveloping new cities as observed from other parts of the world. Thisis mainly by getting information through internet technologies on newmodels or designs in the spirit of global business competition.Information sent through internet technology is a vital driver tocities developing and competing in the global sphere of business.This is a continuous process that has led and still continues to spurgrowth and development in cities around the world.