Mobile Learning Intervention for Third Grade Students

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MobileLearning Intervention for Third Grade Students

GED500 Article Critique



Kiger,D., Herro, D., &amp Prunty, D. (2012). Examining the influence of amobile learning intervention on third grade math achievement. Journalof Research on Technology in Education,45(1), 61-82.


Thearticle highlights an experimental research conducted to examine thesignificance of mobile learning intervention (MLI). The study tookplace at a Midwestern elementary school, with the program taking nineweeks (Kiger, Herro, &amp Prunty, 2012). Two classes used flashcardsto learn mathematics while another group of two used web applicationsfor iPod. The findings from the study indicate that the MLI studentsrecorded significant improvements in the attainment of learninginstructions. The study shows a considerable influence of MLI ondifficult multiplication items although the students’ demographicprofile and teacher’s knowledge in technology are also consideredmore important. The authors propose a further experimental researchto identify the implications of the long-term of MLI for diversestudents. Moreover, the research recommends a study on varioussettings and teaching models for e-learning.


  1. Does participation in the MLI explain a significant amount of variation on a post-intervention multiplication test controlling for several covariates including prior student achievement? If so, what is the influence of the intervention relative to the control variables?

  2. Does participation in the MLI explain a significant amount of variation on the most difficult post-intervention multiplication items controlling for several covariates, including prior student achievement? If so, what is the influence of the intervention relative to the control variables?

of the Research Design

Thetype of study design in this study is a quaisexperimental design asthe participants within different classes have been randomly assignedto the control and the experimental groups. This study used a randomsampling techniques therefore providing all the student participantsin the study an equal opportunity of being in the experimental groupor the control group. The variables within this study included thedependent variables and the control variables. The dependent variablewas a 100-item post intervention multiplication test that wasadministered to student participants in the study. The students weregiven a limited time through which they were expected to come up withas many solutions as possible. The control variable in this studyinclude the teacher Master’s degree in Educational Technology,student’s demographic profiles, students’ absence during theintervention, student’s math attitude during the intervention, thethird grade math test before the intervention, late multiplicationpre-test, previous teacher and the home iPod touch index. With therandom assigning of the students in either groups, the researchbecame a success. It is important to note that the factor that theexperiment was focusing on was the prediction of the posttest score.

Critiqueof the Research

Thearticle critique aims at analyzing the completeness, usability,consistency, and applicability of the journal article. With thearticle being a primary source journal article, this article willcommence with the introduction and review of the mobile learningapproaches. The suitability of the method applied, and theeffectiveness that is attributable to the discussion used in thestudy will be critiqued in this paper. Different aspects of thejournal will be addressed to realize its contribution anddeficiencies entirely. The abstract is clear and comprehensive. Itgives a clear literature on the information the broad aim of theresearch study. The abstract goes further to point out the study wasintended on certain models of mobile learning for third graders.Moreover, a general observation is outlined including the emergingtrends in mobile learning, with particular emphasis on the apps formathematics in daily practice. The study looks into issues iPod touchdevices, MLI for third grade, and school-wide math curriculum.

However,in spite of the positive attributes and factors that have beenindicated by this study, there are several aspects of the study thatindicate a threat to validity of the study and the results that willbe obtained from the study. The classes that were used as theexperimental group and the control group were randomly selected asper the previous arrangements of the classes. The random selection ofthe classes is a threat to validity due to the fact that there was noassessment of the capabilities of the students in relation tomathematics before allocation to the groups. Therefore, the resultsobtained might have been affected due to lack of balancing of thecapabilities of the students in the classes.

Anotherthreat of validity that was quite evident form this research is thedegree of liberty provided to the students on the different classes.The students in the experimental class were at times given theliberty to choose their preferred application while students in thecontrol class were at times given the liberty to choose theirpreferred mathematical method. The end results might have beenaffected as the students might have selected their own preferredapplication or mathematical methods. The above would have been on thecomfort levels of the students.

Thenumbers of participants might have affected the validity of theresults as the participant were of a limited numbers. The resultsmight have hence been affected as the participants cannot representsa large population percentage but rather a small part of thepopulation that have similar backgrounds as the population in thestudy.

Finally,the validity of the results might have been affected by the shortduration in which the research was conducted. Such experimentalresearch require a longer duration of time for conducting theexperiment to ensure that the results obtained is as authentic and asreliable as possible. The short duration for the experiment on theother hand might have only collected data for a specific changingface during the experiment. Therefore, similar researches in thefuture should factor in the time and duration concept to maintainvalidity and reliability.

Otherissues discussed by the authors include the implication of the studytowards enhancing education and integration of technology. Thelimitations of the study highlighted include similarities instudents’ demographics and enrollment history. It also did notconsider how learning takes place within a mobile setting. Thestudy’s responses are not clearly summarized in the article’sconclusion, which is not indicated. The conclusion should haveexplained the contribution of the research and would have opened roomfor further studies. Overall, the journal article is comprehensive inthe way it handled the research on mobile learning for third-gradestudents. Nonetheless, the article has indicated varied issue thatrelated to the validity of the experimental method and design used bythis research. Therefore, the results are likely to be affected.