Inventionand creativity play a vital role in the technology advancement. Fromthe time immemorial, creativity has played a significant role inhuman lives. It has assisted humans to achieve more than could beattained earlier on. Of late, there have been significant businessalterations which require a country to use rational means to copewith the competition, and this can be achieved through the nation’sinvention and creativity. Every day people are faced with challengeseither at individual or society level. To handle such challenges,people need to be creative and innovate to tackle them. For instance,long a time ago people used to communicate through smoke andmessengers, like birds, among others. However, the messages throughthe medium could either be lost on the way, misinterpreted, or themessengers could be killed (Barnes & Meyers, 2011). Suchchallenges necessitated the inventions of other mediums ofcommunications among them being the mobile phone, a gadget that issustained by the internet network. This paper aims at exploring theinvention of the mobile phone as one of the major inventions in thehuman being history. It examines the origin, global picture,developed and developing countries perspectives, and factors for thespread and adoption rate of mobile phones.
Thesource of cell phones, also known as mobile phones, can be tracedback in the 1940s with the development of radio technology that pavedthe way for police cabs, which were radios enabling two-waycommunications. In 1946, the first cell phone was in use though itwas heavy, required a lot of power, and was established when thebattery technology was not advanced. It signaled the introduction ofthe first cell phone Service provider. The Motorola Company designedthe gadget, and it was usually useful in the military and amongwealthy individuals and business people. In 1964, a better improvedmobile phone was developed, thanks to advanced and improvedtechnology. By 1981, a portable cell phone was built. The MotorolaCompany manufactured the first mobile phone, which could be easilycarried, in 1983 though it consumed more power since it was based onunevolved battery technology (Bruijn, Nyamnjoh& Brinkman, 2009).
Today,the cell phone technology is amongst the leading technologies andmajority of the youths can identify with it. The type of the phone anindividual owns defines him or her status. The cell phone, currently,is a necessity for every citizen in developed countries. It isestimated that in 2004 United Kingdom had 51 million subscribers. Therate of innovation in the cell phone industry has continued to risewith the handsets offering a broad range of services. In the recentpast years, mobile phones have dominated as the primary communicationdevices (Evans-Pughe, 2009). There exist disparity innovation ratesamong developed and developing nations concerning the mobiletechnology, raising a concern that developing countries may be leftbehind the continually developing technology. Citizens in most ofdeveloping countries all over the world can now obtain phonesresulting due to social and economic advancement.
Cellphones play a significant role in an individual day-to-day life. Inmost countries, more than 50% of the populations possess the gadgetand in various developing nations, they have become the primary meansof telecommunication among citizens (Smith, 2008). Apart from theconcerns that have been raised related to health, the beneficial useof phones relies on individuals, those in the administration, and theoperators if the safety regulations are put in place. The majority ofthe major innovations related to the gadget were discovered in theU.K. and later adapted in the whole universe. In Europe, ventureshave been started that helps the utilization of cell phone technologyso as to sustain the ecological undertakings together with thesocio-economic progress. Among such ventures include having programsfor farmers to record their livestock databases via GPRS on thehandset and many other recent ones. Through gaining of such knowledgefrom these ventures, there can be the passing of information amongnations and be amended about particular requirements, framework, andskills so as to progress it. Such types of innovation anddevelopments require resources and commitment.
Therising urge to acquire cell phone in Africa has made the region to bea profitable market for the technological gadgets, which arrivedthere in not more than twenty years. According to Smith (2008), sincethe arrival of the device in the region, the sales capacity haverecorded the highest figures in the human history and impacted thehuman relations to the largest extent. The extended use of mobilephones in nations like Cameroon has been curbed due to their highprices. It is amazing in that in Cameroon cell phones are expensivethan motorbikes. Cameroonians seems to be willing to adapt the mobilephone technology however, only cell phone manufacturers, and networkoperators can come to their rescue.
Unlikeother technological gadgets, the cell phones penetrate the marketmore easily in developing countries. In these countries, there isincreasing demand for cell phones considering the technology isrelatively new in the market and hence high profits in the sector,especially to the service providers. Some providers can gain enormousprofits after several months of operations, thereby increasing thescrabble for the acquisition of licenses (Bruijn Et al., 2009).Grounding in history, the major reasons for the low adoption of mostICTs in developing countries is the high costs of the equipment andlack of the necessary infrastructure. Additionally, the inadequacy ofcapital and political has also contributed to the low adoption rate.Turning to mobile phone technology, there is a minimal requirement ofequipment for cables in case of other ICTs, as solar energy can beused as a supplement source of energy. Establishing for such reasons,the increased demand, and availability of willing and potentialnetwork operators and easiness of the implementation of thetechnology have led to the cell phone being the leadingtelecommunication gadget in the developed countries (Barnes &Meyers, 2011). The mobile phones technology adoption in somecountries has been overwhelming. For example, in Swaziland within aperiod of just two years of mobile technology introduction, thenumber of people who had adopted it was higher than the ones usingfixed line.
Cellphones like any other wireless technology have come to be appreciatedas the best telecommunication device even in the rural areas. Forexample, farmers can find the best price of their produce in thecomfort of their residence, small scale business people communicatewith their clients easily, and even talking with relatives who arefar away have been simplified. The advantageous results of the cellphones can be seen as compared to what used to happen earlier. Therehas been increased eagerness for mobile phones in both developed anddeveloping nations due the current diversification in the entireworld. In the African situation, the employment of the technology canbe partly accredited to their traditional culture. For example, inNigeria, the average utilization of cell phones is 200 minutes perweek while in the UK it is 120 minutes per week (Evans-Pughe, 2009). The higher usage in Nigeria can be attributed to unavailability oflandlines and emails, big family size, and extended social networks.In other cases, oral communication may be preferred due to high ratesof illiteracy leading to the lack of utilization of services likeSMSs.
Thehigh adaptability rate of the cell phone in Africa can be co-relatedto the high population density although other factors should beconsidered. Barnes & Meyers (2011) notes that the possibility ofacquiring cell phone in a particular nation is dependent on factorslike per capita income and population density. According to them, thecell phone coverage is also dependent on geographical aspects of anation. Big elevation, sharper slopes, and the distance between majorroads and big shopping centers contribute negatively to cell phonecoverage. Such factors serve as an explanation of low adoption rateof mobile phone technology in some of developing economies.
In2008, Africa had 376 million cell phones subscriptions which were anincrease from 16 million in 2000. However, there might be chances ofoverestimations as some people own more than one SIM cards orhandsets. Similarly, the number may have been having underestimatedbecause there are people sharing cell phones. The high adaptabilityrates are quite surprising considering the vast poverty in Africa.About 300 million people in Africa earn less than a dollar daily andamong them 100 million receive less than half a dollar daily.Considering the lowest price of cell phones in some Africancountries, the rate of poverty does not reflect the mobile phoneadaptability standards. For example, by 2010 the cheapest phone inKenya was more than half the salary of average earners in thecountry. Similarly, in Nigeria, the lowest cell phone price was thesame as 15 kilograms of millet, which can sustain a family of six forsix days (Bruijn Et al., 2009).
Theinvention of cell phones can be said to be amongst the most importantinventions in the world history. Through the technology a lot havebeen achieved, be it socially or economically. The adaptability ratecan be attributed to low literacy requirement of the gadget ascompared to other ICTs. In developed economies, like U.K and U.S.A,cell phones are used for advanced functions as compared to developingeconomies. The adoption rate has been received overwhelmingly indeveloping nations than developed countries despite the realizationof the importance of the gadget. The rate of adoption of landlineswas lower in developing countries as compared to developed ones dueto the high infrastructure requirement hence necessitating high costto implement. However, today the mobile phone technology is among themost evolving technology in the world. The cell phones have changedregarding size, features, models and operating systems. At first, amobile phone was just a telecommunication device. There have beenmany features that have been incorporated into the device likecameras, video coverage, internet services, and transfer of money toothers. The mobile phone will render some of the devices unnecessaryas it continues to advance in the future.
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