PCN-605 Bipolar and Depressive Disorders

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PCN-605Bipolar and Depressive Disorders

ComparisonChart

Note:“D/O” is an acronym for disorder

Disorder &amp Features

Depressive Episode?

Manic Episode?

Hypomanic Episode?

Duration of Clinically-Significant Symptoms

Duration of Symptom-Free Intervals

Distinguish From (Differential Diagnosis):

Comorbidity (Often Seen With):

MDD Major Depressive Disorder (DSM-5, p.155)

Yes: Resulted in significant distress or disability. They are one or more. Have depressed mood or loss of interest, significant change in weight/appetite, insomnia/ hypersomnia, fatigue

No: Due to medical or substance use disorder

No: Yet if they develop diagnosis is changed to bipolar

2 weeks -6 months

No longer than 2 weeks

Self-Diagnosis is often inaccurate

a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment

if no professional is available, our free computerized diagnosis is usually accurate when completed by an informant who knows the patient well. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).

Substance Related: Alcoholism and illicit drug abuse

Dysthymia Persistent Depressive Disorder/ (DSM-5, p.168)

Yes: appetite disturbance, sleep disturbance, low energy, low self-esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness

No: Due to medical or substance use disorder

No

At least 2 years

1+ in children and adolescents

Not more than 2 months

Qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment

Increases the chances for psychiatric comorbidity and also increases the chances for Anxiety Disorders

There is Substance Use Disorders in particular

DMDD Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DSM-5, p.156)

No but the episodes that do not meet the full criteria

No

No but the episodes that do not meet the full criteria

1+year

No longer than 2 months

Bipolar

Psychiatric-related disorders

Cyclothymic Disorder (DSM-5, p.139)

No but: episodes only that do not meet full criteria

No

No but: episodes only that do not meet full criteria

2+ yr. in Adults

1+ yr. in Adol.

No longer than 2 months

Psychotic D/O

Bipolar D/O

Borderline PD

Substance-Induced D/O

Substance-Related D/O

Sleep D/O

ADHD

Bipolar I Disorder (DSM V, p.123)

Yes

Yes: It is a cardinal symptom. Happens at least 1 week when an individual is in abnormal or persistent elevated and irritable condition

Yes: Similar to manic though less intense

No longer than 2 weeks

Full mania 7 days

substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorde

Bipolar II Disorder (DSM V, p.123)

Yes: Depressed, Severity is moderate and has mixed features

Yes:

It is a cardinal symptom. Happens at least 1 week when an individual is in abnormal or persistent elevated and irritable condition

No:

1 week

No Longer than 2 weeks

Hypomania is 4 days

substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorde

Similaritiesand Differences Between Bipolar Disorder and Depression

Thereare differences between bipolar disorder and depression. Depressionnormally is a stand-alone diagnosis or part of another disorder likethe bipolar. This means that the mental health professionals have tofind out whether are disorders and symptoms present or that occurredin the past to see if there is depression or whether it is part ofthe larger disorder. For Bipolar, it entails both mania anddepression. Depression notably has no mania or even the hypomanicepisode in the past(Lewinsohn et al., 1994).

Similaritiesbetween dysthymia and major depressive disorder

Lookingat the symptoms of major depressive disorder and dysthymia, they aresimilar. For both the disorders, they share similar characteristicswhich include sad mood, loss of pleasure and dynamism in appetite,sleep and energy. For both disorders, the treatment is achievablethrough medication or even through counseling (Judd et al., 1998).

Differences

Acritical difference that is evident between the major depressivedisorder and dysthymia is in regards to the degree of severity, theduration it takes and the level of persistence. For instance, thechange in mood in major depression happens almost every single daywithin a period of two weeks whereas for dysthymia, the disturbancein the mood occurs for more days and not during the two-year period.The instances and frequency of reporting dysthymia is less comparedto major depression given that the severity levels of the symptomsare quite down(Lewinsohn et al., 1994).

ForBipolar I Disorder, the persons experience one or more lifetimeepisodes of mania and often there are episodes of depression whilefor Bipolar II disorder, it is known to be present when an individualexperiences the episodes of both hypomania and depression with nomanic episodes. The other difference is in regards to the severitywhere for bipolar I, the severity and duration of episodes are mostlysevere and result in hospitalization while for the bipolar II, theseverity of the highs does not lead to hospitalization (Kessler etal., 2003).

References

Judd,L. L., Akiskal, H. S., Maser, J. D., Zeller, P. J., Endicott, J.,Coryell, W., … &amp Rice, J. A. (1998). A prospective 12-yearstudy of subsyndromal and syndromal depressive symptoms in unipolarmajor depressive disorders.Archivesof general psychiatry,&nbsp55(8),694-700.

Kessler,R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K.R., … &amp Wang, P. S. (2003). The epidemiology of majordepressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity SurveyReplication (NCS-R).&nbspJama,289(23),3095-3105.

Kessler,R. C., Nelson, C. B., McGonagle, K. A., &amp Liu, J. (1996).Comorbidity of DSM-III—R major depressive disorder in the generalpopulation: Results from the US National Comorbidity Survey.&nbspTheBritish Journal of Psychiatry.

Lewinsohn,P. M., Clarke, G. N., Seeley, J. R., &amp Rohde, P. (1994). Majordepression in community adolescents: age at onset, episode duration,and time to recurrence.&nbspJournalof the American Academy of Child &amp Adolescent Psychiatry,&nbsp33(6),809-818.

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