Quantitative Designs

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Selecttwo types of quantitative research designs to compare

  1. Questionnaires/Surveys

  2. Pre-existing data

Brieflydescribe each of the designs that you selected. Include the types ofsamples used to conduct these research methods and the process forselecting a sample

Survey/questionnairesare one of the most popular quantitative research methods for datacollection. Surveys may be used in a variety of forms includingasking individuals to collect to complete a questionnaire anywhere,be it in a bus, at school or a busy retail store. Survey may also besend out through the mail system or emails or even through the socialmedia including Facebook, Twitter and Youtube among others. Thesampling techniques for a survey include random sampling, stratifiedsampling, quota sampling, systematic sampling and purposive sampling.The process of selecting the sample is influenced by target degree ofprecision, time available and budget(Clark-Carter, 2009).

Inregards to using pre-existing data method that is also known assecondary data in making an inquiry the researcher may use alreadyexisting data from National Census Bureau, federal and state datasheets from Center for Disease Control. It may also include analready completed study where one may want to collect additionalinformation or expand the study. In this method, one does not havecontrol over how the original data was collected or the samplingtechniques used or the process of selecting a sample. It has to fitone’s purpose.

Explaintwo similarities and two differences between the designs youselected.

Onesimilarity between both these designs is that a lot of data may becollected within a short time. Secondly, data can be collected from avery fast population.

Thesedesigns are different in that while using pre-existing data is cheap,making, distributing and transporting survey questions over a largetarget population may be very expensive. That is why, onlywell-funded organizations such as the National Census Bureau canafford to conduct a nationwide survey(Sterba, 2011).Secondly while the researcher has control over the process ofselecting the sample and sampling technique for a survey, aresearcher using pre-existing data for his or her study has no suchcontrol. Describeat least one strength and one limitation of each design

Onestrength with survey/questionnaires is that this method can be usedto collect data from a large population of people. As for thepre-existing data, it’s a quicker method of gathering scientificdata. One limitation of questionnaires is that the rate of returnedand completed questionnaires is usually low. As for pre-existingdata, the researcher has almost no control over the data collectiontechniques or the questions asked.Describean insight or conclusion you can draw from the comparison

Fromthis comparison, I have realized that often, the researcher may becompelled to use several quantitative methods so as to take advantageof the strengths of each method and also to cover up on theweaknesses of each one.

Explainany ethical, legal, and socio-cultural considerations that may berelevant for the designs you selected

Especiallyregarding surveys, there are ethical and legal considerationsinvolved. The researcher may not use the name of the respondents inthe publishing of the final report unless the respondents ask fortheir names to appear. Also, one may not distort the informationprovided to fit the specific needs of the study as that would be bothunethical and illegal. For studies involving children, the researchermust also get permission from the parents or guardian beforeapproaching the child and may sometimes be required to fill out thequestionnaire in the presence of the parent or guardian(Yaremko, Harari, Harrison, &amp Lynn, 2013).As for the pre-existing data, there is not much ethical, legal orsocio-cultural considerations as that would have been theresponsibility of the original researcher.


Clark-Carter,D. (2009). QuantitativePsychological Research: The Complete Student`s Companion,, 3rdEdition: The Complete Student`s Companion.Abingdon: Psychology Press.

Sterba,S. (2011). Handbookof Ethics in Quantitative Methodology.London: Taylor &amp Francis.

Yaremko,R. M., Harari, H., Harrison, R. C., &amp Lynn, E. (2013). Handbookof Research and Quantitative Methods in Psychology: For Students andProfessionals.London: Psychology Press.