QuantitativeResearch Critique on Vaccine Acceptance of Patient on Hemodialysis
Quantitativeresearch bases all its processes on mathematical expressions andconcrete results when it comes to analysis of the data collected.This aspect, therefore, makes this form of study provide hard factsand figures during the findings stage of the survey. Thus, whencompared to qualitative research, quantitative research only focuseson empirical data that aptly define the topic and research questionto provide data and results capable of being manipulated in variousmathematical ways to create a comprehensive display of findings.Since the data collected is in numerical form, various statisticalmethods can be used to manipulate the data in ways that will fit theresearch study.
Thedesign approach for the study met the purpose of the research thataimed at finding out the perceptions of different patients based onfactors that hinder them from taking a vaccine, factors that makethem feel the need to have the vaccine, factors that make them haveto take the vaccine and the influences that can make them receive thevaccine. The research questions posed covered all possible areasmaking the study design appropriate to all form of data wereobtained.
Themost rigorous design was used. From the factors that could make thepatient take or refuse the vaccine solely based on personal opinion,the influences they might receive from a secondary party on whetherto take the vaccine and to the most probable action these patientsmight take when influenced were all fulfilled.
Thenumber of data collection points was appropriate as they handleddialysis facilities within two different states. This method providedvarious types of samples from the population that was likely toproduce all the different responses needed.
Sincethe study only dealt with consenting patients aged eighteen andabove, and every response was confidential. The research methodminimized all aspects of biases or threats from the internalconstruct. The external validity of the study was maintained as everypatient studied came from different backgrounds and ages.
2.Population and Sample
Thepopulation was adequately described as patients that were receivinghemodialysis in an outpatient status. The sample detail wassufficient as it consisted of consenting adults that were assured oftheir anonymity for every response they gave and every one of themhad to be literate enough to answer the questions provided.
Thesampling design was the best as it revolved around patients receivinghemodialysis on an outpatient status and the use of eleven differentdialysis facilities enhanced the sample’s representation. Biasesfrom the samples were minimized as the patients were not required toanswer every question they were asked.
Thesample size for all the three vaccines was inadequate as it coveredall the most possible type of respondents regarding age, socialstatus, and literacy level and it, therefore, needed a larger samplesize. A power analysis was used to determine the sample size needsbased on vaccine studies that were carried out in the past.
3.Data Collection and Measurement
Theoperational and conceptual definitions are congruent as a twenty-twoitem survey queries were used for every vaccine to ensure that everypossible data for each could be gathered. Thus, the entire concept ofthe study was tackled through this method.
Everyaspect under study that could influence a patient on what affectstheir acceptance or refusal of the vaccine was fully used in theoperation of data collection and measurement. The justification wasthe model for figure one that showed the various reasons that mightinfluence these patients and how all of these factors relate with oneanother.
Theinstruments are objective as the questions asked are not based onone’s personality, age or social background. However, they areunreliable as they pose different questions for every factor thatmight affect these patients from taking the drugs, yet the instrumenthas never been tried before. The validity of the instruments used is,however, questionable as patients can give incorrect responses.
Appropriatestatistical procedures were employed based on the Likert scale wherethe patients were rating every question from 1 to 5. Where 1 isstrongly disagreeing and 5 is strongly agreeing. The average resultsfor all the three vaccines were then calculated and recorded. Thus,the appropriate statistical methods were used.
Athorough descriptive analysis is given by showing the mean result foreach vaccine, their standard deviations, and their p values. Theresult of each analysis was fully explained together with itsimplications.
Thetype I and type II errors were not minimized as the analysis did notshow any discussion of the results based on the results.
5.Presentation of Findings/Implications
Thereare no discussions about the hypothesis as none was set. The findingsare however well summarized through the use of tables that show themean results, the standard deviations, the number of population inevery sample analyzed and the p values.
Thereport on the findings was written in a manner that will assistmeta-analysis with exact figures and values that can help inevidence-based practice. Every result is fully explained to providecomprehensive details for future reference.
Therecommendations for clinical findings were appropriate as theyprovided insight into the reasons that hinder patients from takingthose three necessary vaccines. The recommendations for futureresearch were also detailed by stating that a study with a largersample size should be done.
Thelimitations were presented, and they aptly explained factors thatmight have affected the results of the survey including the samplesize, the instrument used that had not been tested before and thevalidity of the findings gotten from the patients.
Quantitativeresearch is therefore used to provide values and facts from a studythat attempts to define a particular research question. These valuescan then be used as a projection of the general population andestimate that the likelihood of the entire population to behave asthe samples within the study is very high. These findings can then beused to provide recommendations on the next logical steps to betaken.
Adams,A., Hall, M., & Fulghum, J. (2014). Utilizing the health beliefmodel to assess vaccine acceptance of patients onhemodialysis. NephrologyNursing Journal, 41(4),393.