Racism as a Component of Situational Framework of Diversity Abstract

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Racismas a Component of Situational Framework of Diversity


Althoughglobalization has increased greatly and people have become attuned tocultural diversities, racism continues to define progress andrelations across the world. The complexity phenomenon of racism hasencompassed several aspects such as prejudice, institutional racism,and discrimination. Moreover, racism has emphasized on the structuraldimensions of discrimination, which has allowed the proliferation ofinequality. The emphasis has made the institutional component ofracism pervasive, which has made it challenging to validate thesuccesses of antiracist movements. As such, the paper explicates theaspects of racism as well as illustrates the structural components ofracism based on diversity. Moreover, the discourse offers acontextual framework on the cultural quandaries that depict theproliferation of racism. A historical perspective is drawn andrelated to the current situation of racism, which helps to explainthe situational organization of racism. Several stereotypes havefollowed the definition and development of racism thus, it isimportant to identify the components of racism and the variousaspects that can inhibit the development of racism. As such, thepaper explicates the components of racism, its relation to diversity,and the cultural aspects that shape the development of racism.

Racismas a Component of Situational Framework of Diversity

Racisminvolves the belief that the members of a particular race possesscommon characteristics affiliated to that race. Racism promotes thefallacious belief that there are races, which are superior whileothers are inferior. Prejudicial thoughts and forms of discriminationcharacterize racism in the society. The regarded inferior races oftenface the challenges of being discriminated. Societies, which embraceracism, are limited in terms of development. This is because thesociety, which is looked down upon, might be resourceful. Racismshould be condemned as it denies societies an opportunity to advanceand create new opportunities for its members.

Racismdoes not empower the society it devalues the value of its members.In this sense, the members of the society, which are devalued always,feel that they are not important. Lack of self-confidence in anindividual would discourage the aspect of determination and progress(Yogeeswaran&amp Dasgupta, 2014).Racism inhibits cohesion in a society by dividing people. In asocietal setup, people might hold different opinions about theirperception of a particular race. This result in ideologicaldifferences among the members of the society hence they would notcooperate to work for a common good of the society. Racism resultsfrom the complexity of the interplay of people’s attitudes.

Analysisof topic


Anydiscourse on racism should evaluate the causes and history of racism.Scholars have provided several enlightenments on the existence ofracism, but most of the explanations have failed to show the historyof racism (Yogeeswaran&amp Dasgupta, 2014).Myers (2003) and Feagin and Elias (2013) opine that the most dominantview on racism show racism as an unfounded reaction to diversities,which causes white people to cultivate hateful attitudes toward blackpeople. The hateful attitudes result to aggressive and evil actionstoward the targeted group. The second perception of racism iswidespread in white communities thus, black people need to establishthemselves distinctly from the whites to protect their interests. Onthe other hand, social radicals and libertarian socialists contendthat racism is based on acquisitive perspective usually caused bycapitalism. Perhaps, the libertarian communist is the most utilizedand comprehensive cause of racism. Most importantly is the fact thatracism occurs when one cultural group or historically collectivegroup excludes, endeavors to eliminate, and dominates another groupbased on what the group believes are unalterable and hereditaryaspects.

Assuch, racism is a specific form of prejudice or discrimination whereone group oppresses or discriminates another based on inheritedtraits usually skin color. Early societies such as Romans and Greeceknew nothing about racism as they enslaved both blacks and whites,but the 16thcentury perhaps illustrates the start of racism. Katzand Taylor (2013) and Myers (2003)postulate that the first and clear proof of racism happened with thestart of the transatlantic slave trade toward the end of the 16thcentury. The slave trade brought the concept of separating peoplebased on race. The slave trade was opposed to the concepts andconstructs of the society thus, it allowed the separation of peoplebased on race. The rich and the powerful, in their attempt tovalidate the heartless and atrocious treatment of the black people,formed racism. The formation of racism allowed the powerful toaccumulate wealth. Moreover, the accumulation of wealth by use ofslaves allowed the development and establishment of racism. In fact,racism became a systematic, established, and consciousrationalization for the most debasing forms of slavery. Although theattack on the slave trade as well as the decline of slave tradecaused racism to fade away, the development of imperialism justifiedanother form of racism. As such, imperialist used capitalismexpansion into nations to justify the new form of racism (Katz&amp Taylor, 2013 Yogeeswaran &amp Dasgupta, 2014).Other forms of racism developed with fascism and anti-Semitism whenJews were persecuted. However, the most prevalent and comprehensivedevelopment of racism occurred due to capitalism and the accumulationof material wealth.

Currentday situation

Inthe current day society, racism depicts itself in the sense thatsocieties have different opinions toward each other. People from onerace attribute a different race to be inferior and hence generatingsensitivity (Tyrer.2005).In the society, racism is embraced by discrimination against people.Racism has disintegrated in the current day situation in that themajor race called white is no longer existent. The white race hasundergone disintegration to accommodate other subgroups of the whiterace (Tyrer.2005).Consequently, the white race has developed groups such as the Irish,Jews and Italians. Compared to the numerous forms of racism thatexisted in the past such a racial segregation, racism has diminisheda little. However, racism has not ended, but it is only its scope andcomponent that have changed. American values, black protests, andchanges in the societies have reshaped racism. Furthermore,urbanization and multiculturalism have diminished the scope of racismoften leading to improvements. In fact, compared to a century ago,the lives of black people have improved, which has greatly inhibitedthe proliferation of racism. However, racism inequality anddiscrimination remains prevalent in the society as illustrated by theexclusion and victimization of people based on race. Moreover, thesociety continues to grapple with persisting inequalities ineducation, health care, jobs, housing, and opportunities. In fact,Haenfler(2013)asserts that even the more privileged sections of the black societyremain in a fragile situation and the glittering success of theadvantaged obscure the continuing struggles of the ‘inferior.’The Civil Rights movement contributed greatly to the weakening ofracism as it allowed people to understand the ills of racism as wellas contributed to the enactment of legislations to check on racism.However, white dominance and black inequality persist and continue toshape different aspects of the society.

Racismas topic of interest

Racismaffects the society in different ways. Because of racism, mostsocieties are not able to progress and achieve their potential ofgrowth. Different forms of discrimination at a community and nationallevel characterize racism. In this relation, the study of racism inthe society would be a matter of interest. The society is unable toeliminate the aspects of racism (Tyrer.2005).Studying the causes and factors promoting racism as a topic becomesinteresting, as it would provide the society with insight on how todeal with the situation. Racism is a point of concern to the societyas t deprives the society its freedom to celebrate the diversitycomprised in it. Studying racism as a matter of interest enables thesociety to understand the need to accommodate all people regardlessof their races. Racism became a topic of interest from the fact thatit affects the global community. All societies have at least felt theeffect of racism hence making it a topic of interest qualifies itsstudy.

Comparisonand contrast


Bothwhite and the black races share common features in the society. Onegovernment governs the white race and the black races. In thisrelation, they both owe allegiance to a common rule of law. The lawdoes not discriminate upon a race in the current society. Due to thepresence of a common government within a nation, both racesparticipate in the election of a president for their nation (Chaney&amp Robertson, 2013).The aspect of presidency binds the different races together. Theyboth share the similar religious belief. Inasmuch as there are whitepeople and black people who are racists, they tend to share a commonreligion. People attend common churches and fellowship together asbelievers. In the education system, both races share the same coursecontent in schools and are taught by similar professors. Schools donot segregate the black students to be taught by fellow blackinstructors. In this regard, the schools facilitate the aspect of thetwo races sharing resources without discrimination.


However,in the society where two races exist, there are common features ofdiscrimination based on an individual’s color. The racism aspect isdeveloped when an individual receives unfair treatment from othersdue to the protected characteristics. In most occasions, the blackmembers of a society do not get equal employment opportunities as thewhite race. In criminal offenses, both black and white people committhe offense to the law but the black race is susceptible to beingcharged. Although the white-black relations have changed greatly overthe past decades, the basic frameworks of dominance and inequalityhave continued. The society has made some progress, for example, theelection of Barack Obama, which has led sections of the society tolabel America as a postracial where color does not play a roleanymore. However, these progresses have only tended to look at oneside of the inequality or the domination and failed to consider theglaring statistics on racism. The society continues to separatepeople based on race, as illustrated by the profiling of blacks asinvaders. Hughey(2015) and Jones (2001)assert that both groups have committed hate crimes and aggressionagainst each other, but configurations of disparity and powerdisparities, which are part of the American legacy of a racist pastguarantee the perception that the blacks are the invaders. As such,the society continues to perceive blacks as developing hatred, whichhas led to frustration and disgruntlement among the black communitythus, continued hostility.

Onthe other hand, the relationship between the criminal justice systemand the black community is one of the most unpredictable andcontentious relation in America. The black community has asignificant mistrust and antipathy toward police officers. In fact,the black community considers the judicial system stacked againstthem, a concept that is mostly supported by the tradition ofharassment, abuse, and mistreatment toward the black community.Research shows that only a small percentage of black compared towhite have confidence that police officers treat them fairly (Hughey,2015).The most significant manifestation of the bias is that most blackmales are involved in the judicial system than whites (Myers, 2003).Moreover, recent cases where police officers shoot unarmed blackssupport the fact that police officers resent blacks. Most policeofficer use race as a benchmark when assessing whether an individualis suspicious or dangerous. Hughey(2015)assert that police officers have used race when arresting Mexicansand Blacks whom they regard as dangerous. For example, policeofficers have tended to focus on blacks and Mexicans in the fightagainst drugs while they have focused disproportionately to profileArabs in the fight against terror. On the other hand, the society hasseen an increased class inequality where most blacks are lessaffluent compared to whites. Furthermore, poverty is more prevalentamong the black community, which has greatly reduced opportunitiesfor the black community.

Groupsinvolved in racism

Racismin the United States of America is a major concern in the sense thatit affects people. The people involved in the practice are whitepeople and the black race. In this category, the white race isdisintegrated into other units, which are the Irish, Italians and theJews. The American society being made up of different people whoshare a common nationality has the black race. In the black race, theAfrican Americans, the Latino and American Indian people are in thesecond category. Due to this form of division in the society, theAmerican society experiences challenges in the management of theracism aspect (Chaney&amp Robertson, 2013).The white race is characterized by a significantly large portion ofpromoting racism against the black another races. The white raceperceives itself as a superior race than the other races. Thisdevelopment has encouraged gradual increment of the hatred feelingtoward particular races. The situation becomes challenging to combatby the government because this arises from the fact that thegovernment itself is formed based on racism.

Subculturesinvolved in racism

Mostsubcultures in racism appear, as a racial enclave where majoritygroups regard minorities as inferior. The racial enclave ofsubcultures involved in racism appears more apparent and justifiedwhen participation advocates openly racist ideologies such as gothic,nationalist black metal, power skinhead, and homologies such as thehip-hop culture (Haenfler,2013).Numerous white subculturalists advocate inclusivity based on race andinfluence, which has resulted in the development of other subculturesgeared toward equality. For example, in reaction to whitesupremacists development, people of color have carved resistances todiscrimination and racism through music and art. Subcultures haveserved to question inequalities and prejudices, but in some cases,they serve as spaces to develop whiteness. Racist subcultures such asNazi skinheads have denigrated racial minorities by labeling them asinferior both culturally and biologically while painting certainraces as superior (Haenfler,2013).Genetic characteristics of an individual are not connected to theracial group that they are from. Racial groups in America aresocially developed by the people. In this relation, the majority ofthe citizens in the United States of America are affiliated to acommon race. Racism in America is embraced from the point of howpeople perceive their fellow individuals. Racism depends on theenvironment it is used for. In relation to the title of being calleda white person, the American society has undergone a transformation.The initial white race in America is no longer the known race (Feagin&amp Elias, 2013 Jones.2001).The white race has developed to include other people from thedifferent societies. This is because America is made up of differentpeople from various nationalities. The white race is characterized bythe inclusion of Irish and Jews. The Italian origins are alsoincluded in the white races. Other groups, which are included in thesubgroups, are the people from African origin. The Latino and theAmerican Indian are also included in the subgroups.

Privilegesassociated with subgroups

Inthe American society, the white race is associated to enjoying mostof the privileges compared to the black races. In this relation, theblack races are charged more by the law enforcement agencies than thewhite races. This is characterized by breakage of traffic rules.When the black race is associated with the breaking of a trafficrule, they are likely to be charged heavily compared to the whitepeople (Feagin&amp Elias, 2013). In making purchases, the black race is charged more than the whiterace. The American society is characterized by embracing racismthrough the description of their chances of an individual beingincarcerated (Feagin&amp Elias, 2013).The black race in the American society is likely to go to jail for asimilar offense committed. Both races engage in breaking the law butwhen compared, the white race enjoys more privileges than the blackrace. Regarding employment opportunities, the white races have anadvantage over the black race in America. The chances of a whiteindividual being called back for a job application are higher thanthe chances of a black individual.

Personalposition in the topic

Racismaffects every individual in the society as much as it seems to favorone side of the society. Racism denies individuals the opportunityto exploit their potentials in the society. Due to the effects ofracism, a community feels inferior to another community. The senseof inferiority discourages innovative plans of an individual in thesociety hence disabling the society’s chance of growth. Racismshould be discouraged in the society (Myers, 2003).Discouragement of racism practices would facilitate the effect of asociety being able to progress. Every member of the society has thepotential of becoming what he or she want in the society. Due to theracism effect in the society, individuals are denied the opportunityto discover their ability and make use of them. The topic of racismenables the society to identify strategies for dealing with theconcern of racism (Chaney&amp Robertson, 2013).In this relation, the topic would help the society to understand thechallenges they face when they promote racism. The society has achance to provide a remedy to the problems brought by racism.

Attitudesand beliefs identified when determining racism

Inthe determination of the topic, it was discoverable that racism hadexisted for a longer time. Racism creates a feeling of dislike amongpeople. An individual might develop the feeling of hatred on anotherperson permanently (Myers,2003).The belief that a particular race is more superior to another makethe inferior race becomes suppressed in the community. The culturalperspective of racism is embraced by the fact that the white racegives rise to generations, which are informed that they are superiorto other races. On the other hand, the future generations theinferior race in America grow with a mindset that their race isalways inferior to a particular race (Chaney&amp Robertson, 2013).As a result, it becomes a challenge to the American society to helpthem in combating the problem of racism. In this relation theattitudes and the social norm in the society, as well as thestereotypical beliefs, facilitate racism. The American society facesthe challenge of reforming its society to accept the fact that everyindividual is important in the society.


Inorder for a country to achieve its reconstruction, there is need tosegregate individuals. Segregation was common in the United States ofAmerica as a means to achieve national reconstruction. In thisregarded, the black race was inferior to the white race to enableAmerica to develop and prosper. Racism is based on the policies ofperpetuating racial disparities with or without the idea of Ku KluxKlan. Inasmuch as the society likes to maintain the principle ofdevelopment, embracing some ideas of a colorblind racism havebenefited societies especially when dealing with important issues(Mason,Myers &amp Darity. 2005).For example, the Ku Klux Klan emphasizes that there is no challengeto the white supremacy than individuals joining hands to sabotage thepolicy based on racism. Positive racism especially one aligned tohipster racism allow a society to attain some form of equalityespecially when different groups do not enjoy the same privileges.Most people who support racism do so based on the differences amongpeople. They argue that people were created differently and that theexisting differences illustrate that some people are better than theothers are. In this regards, the society can take cultural groups andposition them to benefit from the disadvantaged groups. Moreover, theincreased inequality among races allows the less advantaged torealize that they have a role to hold for future generations thus,they manage to cultivate developments that ensure their sustenance.


Racismmay appear beneficial to the ‘superior’ races, but eventually, itdoes more harm to the society than people can imagine. Discriminationin America based on race has created resentment among the opposingraces. In some instances, racism has resulted in violence and unrestsas witnessed during the Civil Rights movement. Perhaps, the mostsupporting factor towards the ills of racism is discrimination,inequality, and resentment, which creates segregated societies.People who are discriminated against feel inferior and sometimescultivate violent aspects, which inhibit the development ofsocieties. In order to stop racism, there is need to discuss thecauses and effects of racism in the society. Teaching the societyabout the effect of racism would enable the society to acquire meansof combating the situation of racism. Racism deprives the society anopportunity to discover the aspect of diversity and needs to exploitits value (Masonet al., 2005).Racism facilitates discrimination of people based on their color andorigin. Racism denies the society the ability to work in unity.Division in the society is an impediment to the success achieved bythe society.

Remedyto racism

Provisionof education to scholars on the factors that promote racism would bean effective way of dealing with racism. This is because, insofar asracism does not depict itself in the society, still there are peopleaffected by racism. The parents of their children should discourageracism (Masonet al., 2005).This is because, individuals are not racists by birth, and they onlylearn the racism through being told that there are superior races. Racism discourages development of an individual in the society (Masonet al., 2005).Resulting from racism the society fails to achieve the desiredobjectives due to the inhibiting factor of racism. Learning aboutracism in schools would enable the society to realize its effects ofracism hence change their perspective. Provision of equalopportunities to the public regardless of the race is a strategy theywould help in combating racism. The society needs to be provided withequal opportunities in order to enable development.


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