Reading Response

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Part1 Quiz 9

DeSoto takes the time to emphasize on the matters of political economicstructures. The poor people are going through oppression, socialconventions, and gender disparity, and there is need for them to beliberated. De Soto finds that almost two-thirds of the Ashanti peopleare poor. These people are poor since they lack of legal identitiesthat can bind them. Most states do not give the poor enough time whenit comes to decision making, and therefore, they are neglected andignored as far as globalization matters are concerned. Most states’authorized systems have not given the poor people time and thus, haveisolated them from the society.

Thepoor people in this documentary are settling in untitled lands, andmost of the businesses they are operating are unregistered for themto earn a living. He is focusing on the institution of individualprivate property and he point out that properties of the wealthy mustbe left intact. He is, however, interested in the institutionalreform by saying that the property titling system should be improved.He, therefore, stresses on establishing state welfare through methodsthat are aimed at reducing the level of poverty.

However,I find some inconsistencies in this documentary. De Soto has notaddressed the issues of power that emerge. This is because the powerof the elite, who owns illegal properties like private land in thedeveloping countries, must be changed so that it will be clear howlegal titles to such private lands could be legally granted by thestate. Similarly, De Soto has not monopolized the approaches that canbe used while securing the property lights. He should have providedthe innovative and effective policies that would ensure that there island-tenure security to the poor communities.

Part2 Quiz 5

Inmy view, the capitalist world-economy is in danger as the historicalsocial system is in the process of being superseded. America is thegreatest consumer of petrol globally, but there is a crisis inAmerica. Following its uses and the highest dependency, petroleum hasbecome central to Americans as well as the whole world. From thevideo, Wallerstein is trying to focus on the relationship that existsbetween the socialist states and the capitalist world-economy.Different states, therefore, have different roles to play in thisparticular matter of War, Oil, and Geopolitics. The crude oil isfound in plenty beneath the soil of the Middle East countries, andAmerica will have to shift its attention to this region following theprediction that America’s petroleum wells are drying due to theintensive usage of petrol.

Internationalaffairs become of great importance following stories that can betraced to World War II. These Middle East countries are anti-Americazones and America will have to look for a way in which it would getthe petrol from these regions. The dependency on petrol by theAmericans is likely to lead to recurrent military involvement forAmerica to get oil. Most probably, this will result in the use offorce because these countries may not be willing to trade withAmerica. But this use of force will lead to serious wars that willlead to bloodshed between America and the Middle East countries. Thethought of capitalist world-economy may not help the United Statesbecause of the ancient systems that used to be there are beingsuperseded by most of the countries especially those in the MiddleEast.

Part3 Quiz 6

Thefeminist approaches that are used by feminists pose weaknesses in thesense that the ideas they normally use cannot be scientificallyproved, and this complicates the success of their theories. Theinitial intention why these feminist groups were formed was topromote their role in the society by contributing to the ideas ofinnovation as far as the industrial practices were concerned. Thesegroups never received the attention that was required of them sincethey never worked towards satisfying their claims. Keohane stressesthat these feminist groups should address the social phenomena from aperspective that is more of a hypothetical-deductivist. The womenfeminist group should abolish the political way of approaching someissues and focus on the way that these issues can be solved. Keohanetherefore, concluded that feminists should come up with problems thatcan be verified and should go on collecting data that can be used tosolve issues scientifically (Keohane, 1989).

Asa proposer to the women feminism theory, I would respond to Keohanethat he still knew little about the problems that women were facingin the society. It will be extremely hard for women to raise theirissues in the IR compared to the International Political Economy(IPE). This means that the only way that women will be given time inthe society is to use the political means so that they will get theattention required. Keohane did not understand how much the womenfeminists struggled to draw the attention of the society. Womenshould, therefore, be recognized first before making the requiredcontributions to the society.

Part4 Quiz 9

Thefilm, The Rise of ISIS explains a major concept where decision-makingprocess was wrongly made due to the political culture of one party.The interaction between the decision-making process theory and thepolitical culture has led to the emergence of the deadly group, theISIS. The prime minister of Iraq, Maliki, as well as the President ofAmerica both, failed to take proper decision-making processes thatcould have settled the political tension in Iraq. Maliki failed toobserve the decision-making theory when he disregarded the Sunnis inmatters of running the government. Likewise, the president of Americafailed to follow the decision-making theory when he decided to sendtroops to Iraq to help the government of Maliki, the government thathad earlier on flouted and disregarded the idea of the US of having amore inclusive alliance in Iraq. Should have Obama not taken chancesand decided to help the government of Maliki, the ISIS would have notemerged. The Sunnis would have been involved in matters of runningthe government and this would have solved the political crisis.

Thefilm has not convinced me that the ISIS group is a dangerousorganization to our society. This is because the Maliki governmentand the Obama administration provided a flourishing ground for thegroup to emerge. Maliki failed to take the immediate action toremediate the situation when he neglected the Sunni influentialleaders whose presence in the government would have assured theSunni’s that they are actively involved in the decision-makingprocess in matters of running the government. Should the issue ofexcluding the Sunnis revisited and proper decisions made, the ISISgroup may cease to exist.

Part5 Quiz 4

Hobbesexplains why individuals sacrifice their liberty to the Leviathanthrough his philosophical rules that he used to teach the society. Heexplains that it is important for a man to give up some of hisliberty so that he will enjoy the privileges of security ofself-preservation. He proceeds to explain the social contract as thecondition that forces people to give some of their liberty inexchange for some common security. As per Hobbes, a contract is atransfer of public right. In normal circumstances, there’s nolimitation on the right of natural liberty but in the case of thesocial contract, individuals mutually agree to transfer their naturalrights. Everything is done in a tit for tat manner. This socialcontract has finally given rise to a limited right more especiallythe right of property. He explains that these agreements are notexplicitly made because we are in a civil society but because of thethought experiment which relates to the state of nature.

Thegovernments have to be examined so that their legitimacy could bedetermined. Governments will be responsible for setting the laws thatprotect its citizens. The government should never favor the strongover the weak because by so doing it will have exceeded its functionof legitimacy. He states that during his time, rulers ruled becauseof the authority of their divine right. In a nutshell, therefore, themain reason people sacrifice their liberty to the Leviathan is toreceive and enjoy the privileges of the social contract. This is theonly thing that will enable them to gain the security ofself-preservation.

Part6 Quiz 8

Inthe documentary Soldiers of Conscience, there’s a very cleartension between spiritual issues and the military orders. The conceptof the right to kill therefore emerges when soldiers are in the midstof their duties. It is a difficult situation and making a decisionfor these soldiers is not easier. They are torn between the demandsof duties as soldiers where killing is almost normal for them, buttheir call of conscience contradicts everything. Those who seem to bestrongly rooted in Christianity see it immoral to kill whatsoever thecircumstances. The teachings of Christianity condemn killing, butthey are in a state of war and their profession as soldiers allowthem to kill, so they had to, but others stayed glued to the factthat they are Christians and could not kill. The conscience of thosewho killed while they were in the line of duty still haunts them.They feel that what they did was not right, but the circumstancesforced them to do. Though these brilliant observations from thesoldiers, one clear observation is that all soldiers are soldiers ofconscience who are always in a dilemma when it comes to the demand oftheir duties and the call of conscience.

Thisdocumentary supports the tenets of human nature in the sense that wecan all recognize the right and the wrong regardless of the situationwe face. Everyone becomes a victim of the call of conscience wheneverit comes to a situation that seems to contravene with the tenets ofhuman nature. This is the reason these soldiers find themselves in adilemma on the best action to take while in the call of duty wherethey are entitled to kill though they know that killing is wrong.


Keohane,Robert O. (1989). International Relations Theory: Contributions of aFeminist Standpoint, Millennium-Journal of International Studies,pp245-253.