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The newspaper is a serialpublication that contains news, informative articles andadvertisements it is usually in print form, and it is relativelyinexpensive. It consists of the editorial section where it summarizesthe main ideas in the newspaper as well as critiques the variousissues that get presented to it (Michaeli, 2016)Papers tend to getpublished daily or weekly and contain a wide variety of printedmaterials, besides new and advertisements, other information thatexists in a newspaper include, weather forecast, criticism, reviewsof art that include literature, film, television, fine art, andarchitecture.

Also local services such asrestaurants, obituaries, entertainment features and sports getpublished in a newspaper. Most newspapers are businesses, and theytend to pay their expenses with a mixture of activities such asrevenue from the various subscriptions, newsstand sales, andadvertising revenue. The newspaper gets written in a wide variety ofstyles with the main headlines being written in bold or italics so ast o capture the attention of the reader it starts by highlightingthe top stories and its cover pages tend to attract or poses someaspects of captivation.

A variety of changes tend tooccur on the newspaper over the years this is because, as the yearspass, there is usually some growth and development that take place inhumans either intellectually or physically and this calls for achange in all aspects of the society. Some of the precipitatingfactors of these changes are the advancement in technology and thedemand for the newspapers. Also the need to avoid monotony by theprinting press plays a vital role in ensuring that change getsimplemented. Looking into factors such as some images, it is evidentthat, during the initial stages of the introduction of the newspaper,they had just a few pictures, and as time went by, the number ofimages on the paper started increasing(Wills1988), The images alsochanged in color from black and white to colored so as to enhance theappeal of the newspapers to the readers.

The layout of the publicationchanged to portrait and the kind of material changed to that whichcovered all sectors ranging from politics to sports and entertainmentand well as international news. The relative size of each of thesections covered differed with time that is the entertainmentsection reduced in size while the politics section had an increase insize. Also, the size of the sporting section was somehow medium insize, the obituary section size depended on the amount ofadvertisements that got placed, and mostly it occupied a page of thenewspaper.

The topics that got discusseddepended on the design as well as the size of the journal, in that,in a portrait layout, so much could get discussed as the paper couldget divided into so many sections, topics concerning politicsoccupied enormous sections as well as those dealing with stateissues.

Business issues occupiedrelatively large sections followed by sports, and the entrainmentsection occupied just a small part of the newspaper. Also, the papersdealt with matters that concerned him various technologicalinnovations especially those that majored on sound. During theseyears, the world was not yet developed, and so the newspapers focusedon illuminating these aspects of inventions since they were uniquealthough crude in a way.

Thekind of readership this paper tried to reach is one that iswholesomely involvedIt means that it attempted to look into everyaspect of the society as well as its composition, in the sense that,it tried to cater for the demand of those who were in politics andbusiness.

Also, the other percentage ofthe population that is usually not specific to what they look for ina paper. The size of readership that the newspaper tried to reach wasa comprehensive one this is because it employed all aspects ofmaterials the people got interested in and published it as news so asto try as much as possible to cater for needs of each and everyindividual in the population.It considered the ages of theindividuals since its content favored all as it employed the use ofsimple grammar.


The amount of media takingplace in Toronto in the three years is not that much, but it issomething that can get quantified. For instance, in 1950’s the inCantor was the type of media that got employed and it invalid bendingof the circuit with an aim of generating novel sounds or even visualoutput.The technique that got used and which involved circuit bendingemployed the application of objects such as cheap synthesizers andchildren toys that got powered by the battery, these instruments gotmodified into DIY musical apparatus and some audio generators thatwere homemade. The renewed circuits bending is that of Ghazala inCantor that involved a series of devices that were highly customizedspeak and spelled as well as read and speak and math’s children’stoys that got built since 1978.

Another classic example of themedia is the circuit of bending that was formerly known as newmedia.It is an electronic DIY movement that got undertaken byindividuals without any formal training or approval and got focusedon the manipulation of the various circuits as well as the changingof the notion, the taken -for- granted specialized function.Themanipulator of the of consumer electronics often traversed throughmost of the hidden content that got situated inside of the varioustechnical systems .breaking a part of and reverse engineering of thedevice without any formal expertise, defined end points or manuals.The above approach formed the characteristic of the early20th-century wireless as well as radio culture, after world war twoelectronic arts.

The process of circuit bendinginvolved going to any secondhand store or even a garage sale with anaim of obtaining an inexpensive battery powered device.Also, it meanttaking the back cover of the instrument as well as probing thevarious mechanisms of the circuit board and in the process leading toa temporary short circuit and rewiring the device. All these got donewith an aim of trying to see whether the created invention displayedthe desired results as expected.

The device that got powered bybattery underwent a series of powering incidences, and the involvedindividuals listened for any unusual sound effects that emanated as aresult of the probing. If any interesting result got found, then theconnections got marked for further modifications. The devicesemployed the services of the black box that acted as the processingsystem of the information, and when the box was intact, it processedinputs into outputs without the fundamental knowledge of the internalfunctionality of the system. Also, when the black box got broken, theoutput stopped since no connection could get involved in thetransmission of sounds and this incident made the black box be in astate of demutualization.

Although the various media gotemployed in the emission of sounds, during their breakdown, no repaircould get done, and this hampered the transmission of the sounds, theinterior of the black box acted as the expert territory and did nothave the capacity to undergo user serviceability. The potion workedas the expert area, but some of the portions of the nonuserserviceable interior of the box system could get manipulated andbent.

Accordingto the concepts of residual, emergent and dominance that gotdeveloped by Raymond Williams, the corresponding relationship betweeneach of these media is very significant in the sense that, they tendto use almost the same mechanisms since they both use unwantedmaterials such as used batteries so as to act as their corerequirements. These media emerged as the result of numerous trialswhere they got tested if they were responsive to the various chargeswhere markings got employed so as to ascertain the exact spots thatelicited a response. On dominance, the devices especially the blackboxes came and overtook everything and in those years, they gotviewed as the most improved and up to date as well as relevant media.Another parallel relationship between these media is that they bothgot created in the nineties where there were no advancements intechnologies, and they employed the trial and error methods so as totry and establish whether the devices worked or not.

Thefindings of media and culture are that media tend to evolve as thetechnology advancements crop up, and at no any one time will themedia be static. The media tend to involve a variety of inventionssince at the slightest disturbance they might end up breaking downas in the cases of the black boxes and through their repairs, a newdesign might end up getting made. According to the newspapers, overthe years, there have been some numerous developments especially inthe transmission of the sound where new inventions such as thecircuit bending mad technology methodologies got invented through aseries of events ( Douglas, 1999.).

Aculture of innovation is usually progressive, and this got evidencedby the fact that, over the years the number of inventions hasincreased by far after the invention of the circuit bending apparatusthat transmitted sound. According to the newspaper, the use of mediathat is somehow dead or not in use is an essential aspect, and thematerials that could get resurrected include things like used papersthat might get recycled and get utilized in the printing of thenewspapers.

Also, a culture of creativitycontinues to crop up especially on the aspects of technology sincethe circuit bending technology cropped up due to the effects ofcreativity on the side of its finders who assemble some un-used typesof equipment and went ahead to create such a magnificent piece ofinnovation that could transmit radio waves.


Douglas,George H. The GoldenAge of the Newspaper.Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print.

Michaeli, Ethan. TheDefender: How the Legendary Black Newspaper Changed America : fromthe Age of the Pullman Porters to the Age of Obama., 2016. Internet resource.

Willis, Jim. Survivingin the Newspaper Business: Newspaper Management in Turbulent Times.New York: Praeger, 1988. Print.