Student`s Part one

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Thenewspaper is a serial publication that contains news, informativearticles, and advertisements it is usually in print form, and it isrelatively inexpensive. It consists of the editorial section where itsummarizes the main ideas in the newspaper as well as critiques thevarious issues that get presented to it (Michaeli 31). Papers tend toget published daily or weekly and contain a wide variety of printedmaterials, besides new and advertisements, other information thatexists in a newspaper include, weather forecast, criticism, reviewsof art that include literature, film, television, fine art, andarchitecture.

Alsolocal services such as restaurants, obituaries, entertainmentfeatures and sports get published in a newspaper. Most newspapers arebusinesses, and they tend to pay their expenses with a mixture ofactivities such as revenue from the various subscriptions, newsstandsales, and advertising revenue. The newspaper gets written in a widevariety of styles with the main headlines being written in bold oritalics so as t o capture the attention of the reader it starts byhighlighting the top stories and its cover pages tend to attract orposes some aspects of captivation.

Avariety of changes tend to occur on the newspaper over the yearsthis is because, as the years pass, there is usually some growth anddevelopment that take place in humans either intellectually orphysically and this calls for a change in all aspects of the society.Some of the precipitating factors of these changes are theadvancement in technology and the demand for the newspapers. Also theneed to avoid monotony by the printing press plays a vital role inensuring that change gets implemented. Looking into factors such assome images, it is evident that, during the initial stages of theintroduction of the newspaper, they had just a few pictures, and astime went by, the number of images on the paper started increasing(Wills 48). The images also changed in color from black and white tocolored so as to enhance the appeal of the newspapers to the readers.

Thelayout of the publication changed to portrait and the kind ofmaterial changed to that which covered all sectors ranging frompolitics to sports and entertainment and well as international news.The relative size of each of the sections covered differed with timethat is the entertainment section reduced in size while the politicssection had an increase in size. Also, the size of the sportingsection was somehow medium in size, the obituary section sizedepended on the amount of advertisements that got placed, and mostlyit occupied a page of the newspaper.

Thetopics that got discussed depended on the design as well as the sizeof the journal, in that, in a portrait layout, so much could getdiscussed as the paper could get divided into so many sections,topics concerning politics occupied enormous sections as well asthose dealing with state issues.

Businessissues occupied relatively large sections followed by sports, and theentrainment section occupied just a small part of the newspaper.Also, the papers dealt with matters that concerned him varioustechnological innovations especially those that majored on sound.During these years, the world was not yet developed, and so thenewspapers focused on illuminating these aspects of inventions sincethey were unique although crude in a way.

Thekind of readership this paper tried to reach is one that iswholesomely involved. It means that it attempted to look into everyaspect of the society as well as its composition, in the sense that,it tried to cater for the demand of those who were in politics andbusiness.

Also,the other percentage of the population that is usually not specificto what they look for in a paper. The size of readership that thenewspaper tried to reach was a comprehensive one this is because itemployed all aspects of materials the people got interested in andpublished it as news to try as much as possible to cater for needs ofevery individual in the population. It considered the ages of theindividuals since its content favored all as it employed the use ofsimple grammar.

PartTwo: Media in Context

Thissection compares the three newspapers from February 14 1941 one fromFebruary 14 1961 and the other February 14 1981.

February14 1941

TheToronto Daily Star portrays Toronto as a place defined by war and theaftermath. This is clearly portrayed by the Newspaper headlines andsub headlines. There is a photo right at the middle of the front pageof the Newspaper portraying Winnie with a victory smile and headed tolunch with the Prime Minister of Canada. The smile is described as avictory smile.

February14 1961

InToronto Daily Star, the front page of the newspaper has with itcomics.

February14 1981

Theuse of comic strips is evident in the newspaper. The notion of usingthe comic strip in the newspaper especially a Saturday Newspaper isthe best idea as it comic helps in building circulation. The comicsthat are in the front page of the 1981 Newspaper is one of the bestcomic strip providing the reader the best chance to engage in thesubject matter.

Lookingat the three newspapers, the design and the newsprint styles seems todiffer from one to another. The designing seem to have gainedprominence over time with the 1981 newspaper having better graphicsand authoritatively having comics at the front page. The visualpattern from the Newspaper is different and this is evident in thenewspaper layout of texts and photographs as well as coherence in thenewspaper presentation. The design seems to have improved from thecopy of 1941 to that of 1961 and the copy of 1981 being better thanthe first two.

Simplicitythat leads to easy readability of the text seems to be a concept thatwas only adopted over the times. A case in point is the 1981newspaper being simple in content and this makes it quite easy toread. Looking at the 1941 Newspaper, the content is nearly everywherewith nearly every part of the newspaper captured in the first page,that is, the front page of the newspaper. The earlier papers, both1941 and 1961 seem to have detailed information hence making it evendifficult to apply to a given situation.

Seemingly,it might have been clear that earlier publications faced complexitiesand diversity in regards to the interaction design. Going through thesecond pages of the newspapers, both the 1941 and 1961 are so muchdetailed with lots of information.

InMarxism and Literature (1977), Raymond Williams talked about thetheory of the process of cultural change. As part of the theory hedivided the elements of culture in three groups which includedresidual, dominant, emergent. In the work, William talks aboutculture instead of media alone but the ideas that he puts forth arecritical in analysis of media and shall be used to compare the threepapers of Toronto Daily Star Newspaper.

Canadabeing a liberal country, most of the newspapers including the TorontoDaily Star enjoyed a strong tradition of the independence of massmedia. According to the concept of Marxism, there is superstructureand economic base where superstructure covers culture, the state,law, religion and the family. A case in point is that the TorontoDaily Star on 14 February 1941 covered a number of issues includingwars, economy, and weather.

Throughoutthe three newspapers coverage it is clear that there is Marxismapplication especially with reference to base where the economicsubstructure, the different means of production and dominant classtake charge. The Newspapers in the year 1981, 1961 and 1941 seem tofollow the ideological interest of the dominant class within thesociety as depicted in the Marx’s notion of historical development.

FromMarxist, point of view, the media is integrated in the existingeconomic and political elites and thus reflect their interests at theend. The 1941 newspaper seems to push the agenda of the Nazis,British, and United States. While pushing for the agenda, the mediacomes out as liberal in nature and thus to some extent enhancing thesocial agreement through dissemination of information and contraryopinion. In the 1941 coverage of the Toronto Daily Star, the Nazisappear to manipulate the content of the media.

Accordingto Williams, residual is one that has been effectively formed in thepast though it is still active in the cultural process. The residualcomponents are not just formed of the past element but they are alsoeffective as the present element. Going through the newspapers, thenotion of bolding the headings of the paper seems to be something ofthe past though it is still active to date. The arrangements in placeare modern like though prepared using modern production withtraditional instruments.

Thenthere is emergent part that is advocated by Williams and this meansthat new meanings and values coming into play. There are newrelationships and kinds of relationship being created every time. Thenewspaper has developed overtime and embraces new things as dictatedby the society.


Thedesign patterns used in newspapers are often different from one toanother though for the three years, the newspapers seem to havecertain design template that is applicable to all of them. All of thepapers have titles which is purposefully meant to attract theattention of the reader. The 1981 has Comics as the title, the 1961paper has the title as “Ottawa says No to Loan for Subway” andthe 1941 paper has “Rout Nazis High Over Channel” as the title.Further, in the paper there is use of asterisks, which is meant tomark the significance of pattern or even used to highlight or note animportant point. Additionally, the papers uses pictures right fromthe front pages to the other pages. The use of pictures seemingly isto demonstrate examples as captured by explanation in words. In 1961paper, the front page has the picture of Mrs Patrice Lumumba the wifeof the deceased Congolese leader. Ideally, a design pattern is asolution to a problem that arises in a given context. The designpatterns are in place to be yardstick for performance and provisionof solution. The design patterns can be used when designers encountera recurrent design problem.

Mediaand Culture

Mediabrings out the concept of cultural change as it is in the society.Culture is ever evolving and every of the three newspapers brings outthe cultural changes properly. A cultural change refers to when newthings like railroads and smartphones open ups new way of living. Acase in point is the construction of Subway in the 1941 paper whosefunding Ottawa fails to approve.

Additionally,from the newspaper, it is clear that there are different forms ofmedia used to show and affirm innovation. Innovation representschange in culture given that it is making its first appearance in thesociety. Innovativeness can either be through discoveries orinvention. Some of the innovations are covered in the threenewspapers hence affirming that they are used as a means ofcommunicating culture change.


Douglas,George H. TheGolden Age of the Newspaper.Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Greenwood Press, 1999. Print.

Michaeli,Ethan. TheDefender: How the Legendary Black Newspaper Changed America : fromthe Age of the Pullman Porters to the Age of Obama., 2016. Internet resource.

Willis,Jim. Survivingin the Newspaper Business: Newspaper Management in Turbulent Times.New York: Praeger, 1988. Print.