Testing Instruments

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Inthe 1990s, McCrae and Costa conducted the first revision of NEO-PI-Ras it had become obsolete or difficult to comprehend by theparticipants involved. This induced Costa and McCrae to conduct acomprehensive research of over one thousand high schools. 48 issuesbased on understanding were raised during the study. The revisedversion is known as NEO-4 with four personality scales that compriseof conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeable and openness toexperience with the exclusion of Neuroticism. The revision wascritical to surmount the difficulties encountered in personal growth,employee training, counselling and development of career.

Thereare two forms in the NEO-4. They comprise of observer rating (form R)and Self-report (form S). All the forms have a total of 240components describing behavior represented on a scale of five pointfrom disagree strongly to agree strongly. The full version should beconducted in not less than 20 minutes or more than 40 minutes asproposed by the authors.

Validity of the test

Validityoccurs when the inferences derived are applicable, appropriate andmeaningful. Trait measurements in NEO-4 pose a great challenge to itsvalidity. It utilizes respondents’ opinions or opinions that areself-reported. The traits are subject to numerous errors as realviews are difficult to ascertain. Self-reports given a person anopportunity to explain the thought of others concerning oneself.People usually feign emotions depending on circumstances such asfriendship and dependence and the information obtained is likely tobe appropriate.


Reliability entailsconsistency produced by assessment tools for given period. NEO-4displays a reduction of the initial five-model factor to four.Neuroticism was omitted which is key in determination of personalitytraits is relating to frustration, fear, moodiness anxiety andjealousy. This affects the reliability of the information obtained asno further information is provided for the omission or means ofrecapturing this important information.


Costa,P. T., &amp McCrae, R. R. (1998). NEO-4.Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.