The International Involvement of United States from Spanish-American War

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TheInternational Involvement of United States from Spanish-AmericanWar

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TheGlobal Involvement of United States from Spanish-AmericanWar

Fromthe period of the Spanish-American War until the beginning of thecold war the United States went from relative isolation to increasedinternational involvements because of the frontier expansion plan,the open door policy, the acquiring Guam and Puerto Rico territoriesand Panama Canal, the response of Americans to World War 1, and theextraordinary economic, territorial, industrial and populationgrowth. The consequences on American society of that greaterinvolvement were wars and immigration, the transformations of theeconomy and improved living standards, the development of governmentand its responsibilities, and an increase in scientific innovationsand creativity.

TheUnited States went into active global involvement because of thefrontier expansion policy. Frontier refers to the space left by theexplorers, pioneers, and settlers. Frederick Jackson Turner during aspeech in 1893 argued that the frontier was limited. Increasing thefrontier area would lead to increased number of foreigners hencemaximization of resources1.These foreigners were to boost the economy of the United States as itwas the meeting point of the savagery and civilization. It wouldenhance rapid Americanization. Frederick claimed that blending ofcultures resulted in extensive borrowing of cultural practices hencecivilization2.The speech led to the promotion of own democracy.

Theopen door policy also led to the US involvement in the internationalaffairs. It stated that rights of all trading countries would behonored and that there would be no discrimination3.The policy made the Chinese to open for international trade. Thepolicy aimed at competing against the European countries for China,which was rich in resources as at then. Although the Great Britainhad pursued China over an extended period, United States had eyed thecountry`s resources and was out to come up with an idea that wouldlure them to accommodate the US. The policy also protected theChinese against the absorption of Europeans since discrimination wasabolished4.The US was aware that China would not compete with Britain due tomilitary weakness hence had to provide terms that would favor them.

TheUnited States acquired Cuba and the islands of Guam and Puerto Ricothat enormously put the country into the global limelight5.Acquiring Cuba meant they had control over the best sugar caneproducers considering that sugar cane was a primary source ofcapital. Guam and Puerto Rico islands connected the United Stateswith East Asia, which was the main market for Americans goods6.As a result, there was easy access to East Asia as well as safetransportation for the goods. The competence for the internationalmarket with the Great Britain made the United States aware of Worldaffairs since the Great Britain was a conqueror in those times7.

Inthe interest of protecting China (which had two major coastlines),the United States decided to build Panama Canal that would give themanother additional access to the coastal region. Hay-PauncefoteTreaty was signed to allow the construction of the canal8.The treaty stated that the canal would be free to vessels from allnations. That way, the United States was further getting exposed tothe international affairs. The canal was the 10-mile length and wasopen to all vessels interested.

Theresponse of the United States to the First World War also made itopen to international affairs. The US aimed at bringing the Europeansdown as they challenged them of the uncivilized actions during thewar9.The US claimed that their tactics were not law abiding hence came upwith a plan to counter the causes of war. They argued that there wasa need to use fewer arms to reduce the effects of the war as therewas massive death during the war. They also advocated for opentreaties, freedom to access overseas as well as free trade from all10.They also claimed that the colonial masters had the responsibility ofaccounting for the interest of the natives as it was their right11.The natives also had the rights to form their government and aboveall, to form the League of Nations that would protect membercountries from exploitation from the colonial masters12.

Extraordinaryeconomic, territorial, industrial and population growth made theUnited States get out of relative isolation. The competition with theEuropeans for the foreign markets as World affairs exposed the UnitedStates to the limelight. There was a need to provide for theincreased population through economic expansion13.The desire for more overseas territories facilitated the annexationof Hawaii that would add to other colonies to enable access to theEast Asia. As a result, United States had a growing economy thatwould make them valid for the competition. That is the reason as towhy they would afford to colonize more territories in their favor.

Theeconomic status of the United States compelled the country to getinvolved in global matters as it boosted its role in the worldaffairs. It became the most powerful state and hence got to beinfluential. It got involved in making policies that would facilitateinternational trade as well as guard their interests. Theirparticular interest in the East Asia was served by colonizing theCuba and Puerto Rico Islands as well as harnessing Hawaii. However,they needed to extend their market to other countries to increasetheir income. Their strengthening economic muscles made them theWorld Bank as many nations would seek them for loans and would get arefund with interest14.

Theemergence of merchants also changed the involvement of America in theworld. Their emergence was caused by the end of the progressive era.Since the state was capitalistic, there was an increase in the numberof the bourgeoisie15.The emerging middle class focused on foreign trade that economy ofthe nation through increased per capita income. As a result, therewas extensive trading and investment in foreign countries hence USextended international relations to Japan and China among others.

Theconsequences of the involvement of the United States in globalmatters, on the American society of that great involvement were wide.One of the consequences of the US involvement in the world affairswas war. When the US annexed the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo ledthe Philippines to wage a guerrilla war against them in 189916.The war would last for three years and cost the United States a lot.They lost 4000 lives during the war and the economy of the state wascompromised. The economy went down as many people spent time in thewar while the remaining would out of loyalty provide for thefighters17.A lot of resources were also siphoned while purchasing the armamentsamong them 15 million rifles and machine guns, 4 million tons ofartillery shells, 64000 landing crafts, 40 billion bullets, and 6500ships18.

Transformationof the economy was another consequence associated with the UnitedStates getting from the state of isolation. The country`s economyfaced ups and down. In as much as it was compromised during thethree-year war with the Philippines, it later improved from theextended international trade. Since the tariffs on sugarcane had beenreduced in the colonized countries, there was increased income19.Industrial revolution steered competition and United States wouldproduce quality good.

Thefrontier extension and the economic prosperity of the nationattracted many immigrants who had to be restricted after the FirstWorld War. They would limit the Chinese laborers and other Asians butfavored the Japanese and the Philippines20.The restrictions also focused on the criminals, those who failed tomeet certain moral standards, individuals with communicable diseases,paupers, radicals and the illiterates21.The reasons for the restriction were fear of competition for jobs,the foreign radicalization of business, racism and religiousanti-Catholicism.

Theliving standards of the people improved as a result of theinternational involvement of the Americans. The rise of the middleclass led to an increase in the standards of living. People affordedbasic needs as they were mainly producers and merchants22.The capitalism made the citizens aggressive in determining their fateand looking for wealth. Prosperous merchants became the role modelsand provided job opportunities for the farms and the trading sector.Life became easy and enjoyable due to material prosperity. Peoplebecame modernized on industrialization as they adopted more naturalmethods of production of goods23.However, capitalism increased unequal distribution of resources asthere was a large gap between the rich and the have-nots.

Growthin government and responsibilities was another consequence of USinvolvement in World affairs. When William McKinley was elected, heventured to focus on economic development of the nation rather thanan emphasis on the shortcoming of US like other previous leaders. Onhis focus, he increased the number of colonies for the state, andthis facilitated a greater number of trading territories24.The growing number of territories increased governmentresponsibilities as they had to protect their colonies againstinvasion from other nations. As a result, they would help them inwars as well as protect them from exploitation during the trade.During the war, the government would offer armaments and armies tothe colonies which were an increased responsibility.

Scientificinnovation and creativity also emerged as a result of theinternational involvement of the United States. Industrializationsteered science and technology. Competitive nature with other nationsled to scientific innovation as they needed to produce better goodsand services. They came up with better machines to make work easierand also to produce more quality goods that would compete andpossibly be better than those produced by others25.Due to the borrowed ideas from other countries, they also decided tobe more creative in modifying their living conditions hence coming upwith creative ideas.

Apartfrom better goods, they also focused on coming up with better weaponsthat would help them get through war since they had a biggerresponsibility on their colonies. The US also established a nationaltrend in the style of new clothes and the hair styles26.The creative work of art made them trend in styles. As a result,there was an improvement in the way Americans viewed themselves, andthis improved their self-esteem. The new goods that had been producedout of innovation and creativity needed to be marketed hence theycame up with the advertisement27.It was done through the audio, videos, motion pictures andbillboards. There was an increased advertisement of new products andservices hence increased the market.

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JohnHay`s Open Door Circular,Retrieved From, https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/opendoor.htmMarch 24, 2016

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Keynes,J.M., (1920). TheEconomic Consequences of the Peace.New York: Harcourt Brace. Retrieved From,&lthttp://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/15776?msg=welcome_stranger&gtMarch 24, 2016

Libraryof Congress Digital News,Retrieved From, http://www.loc.gov/library/libarch-digital.html March24, 2016

McKinley`sJustification for Taking Philippines,Retrieved From,&lthttp://historymatters.gmu.edu/blackboard/mckinley.html&gt March24, 2016

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20Magee, Malcom D. Unit Chapters, The Illusion of Isolation, Global Business, Ambivalence: Hemingway and Fitzgerald’s America. Web, Accessed, 24 March, 2016, &lthttp://msu.grtep.com/index.cfm/ushistory/page/6&gt

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23 Keynes, J.M., (1920). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. New York: Harcourt Brace. Retrieved From, &lthttp://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/15776?msg=welcome_stranger&gt March 24, 2016

24 McKinley`s Justification for Taking Philippines, Retrieved From, &lthttp://historymatters.gmu.edu/blackboard/mckinley.html&gt March 24, 2016

25 Keynes, J.M., (1920). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. New York: Harcourt Brace. Retrieved From, &lthttp://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/15776?msg=welcome_stranger&gt March 24, 2016

26 Keynes, J.M., (1920). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. New York: Harcourt Brace. Retrieved From, &lthttp://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/15776?msg=welcome_stranger&gt March 24, 2016

27 Keynes, J.M., (1920). The Economic Consequences of the Peace. New York: Harcourt Brace. Retrieved From, &lthttp://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/15776?msg=welcome_stranger&gt March 24, 2016