U.Sglobal involvement from Spanish American war to cold war
U.Sglobal involvement from Spanish American war to cold war
Fromthe time of the Spanish American war until the beginning of Cold War,the United States went from relative isolation to increased globalinvolvement because of Changed economical, political and militaryposition in the international platform, the establishment of Leagueof Nations, the establishment of Stimson Doctrine, and the GreatDepression that forced the United States to respond to globalmatters. The consequence on the American society of that greaterinvolvement was a divided nation on the United States involvement onexploitation actions, Immigration problems and the establishment ofcivil movements.
UnitedStates was compelled to be involved in global matters due to thesuperior economical, political and military position the country heldin the world arena during the world wars. During the World Wars, theUnited States gained significant respectability for the first timedue to the fact that its global position had changed significantly.Therefore this new position led to the United States wanting toprotect and safe guide its national interests more actively by way ofcooperating with other global nations1.This is despite the fact that it had developed its traditionalnational policies that averted the possibility of creating ordeveloping world alliances or committing itself to other nations. Inthis regard, there was a proposal of formation of League of Nationsby President Woodrow Wilson in an effort of creating a world that waspeaceful2.This then suggested that the United States had to activelyparticipate globally in an effort to creating a collective securityin the global platform. President Woodrow pushed relentlessly forliberal idealism that was seen as a way of describing United Statesin simple words “United States of the World”3.
Moreimportantly, the United States involved itself with world affairsbecause of the lesson it learnt from the Treaty of Versailles thathad ended World War I4.This is mainly due to the fact that although it succeeded in endingWorld War I, it treaty failed to guarantee world peace especiallyfrom the European countries such as Germany. This treaty however,laid groundwork for the processes of decolonization, which was a movethe United States hoped to take in the hope of promoting world peace.However, one of the contrasting significance of this treaty is thefact that it led to the development of World War II. In this regard,the United State knew that if it exempted itself from global affairs,it would eventually have many American lives lost during war.
Anotherfactor that caused United States global involvement was thedevelopment of the Stimson Doctrine that was established by PresidentHerbert Hoover together with Henry Stimson who was the then Secretaryof State. This doctrine was established chiefly during the Japaneseinvasion to the Northern territories of China known as the Manchuria.The Japanese sought to expand its territories in order to gain mostcontrol of China territory5.Through this global participation, the United States stated clearlythat it would not be acquainted with any territory that was acquiredby violating international agreements or through aggression for thatmatter. Therefore it is through the establishment of Stimson Doctrinethat the United States expressed its displeasure with the aggressionmanner through which the Japanese was acquiring Manchuria. Hence theUnited States involved itself directly to through such interventionsto global matters.
Moreover,some other global conflicts such as Spanish Civil War and the Italianinvention to the territory of Ethiopia saw the United Statesinvolving itself to global matters in order to protect itself fromglobal threat. The United States had to change its traditionalnon-committal foreign policies by either interventions or directinvolvement. This action saw the then newly elected president of theUnited States, President Delano Roosevelt propose the necessity andneed of the United States to being more actively participating insuch international affairs. However, due the existing traditionalpolicies that formerly embraced the isolationism, his personaloutlook towards global involvement was met with great opposition fromthe United States congress. In this regard, President Roosevelt wasforced to come up with proposals to the congress, which wouldeventually grant him powers to consult with other global nations oninternational conflicts as well as the aggression movement in 19336.Such globalconsultationswere aimed at directly applying pressure to the aggressors andaverting international conflicts. Increased international conflictsthat Roosevelt termed as “global disease that needed to bequarantined” pushed the United States congress see the need ofdirectly involving itself directly in international affairs.
In1941, Henry Luce was a key figure in pushing the United States toglobal involvement. He relentlessly called for United States torealize the impact of its transformational ideas on internationalaffairs. In this regard, he published a document in Life called “TheAmerican Century”, which was aimed at rallying popular as well asgovernment support to the United States global leadership position7.This document included two significant objectives to the UnitedStates global involvement it called on the need for the UnitedStates to directly involve herself in European conflicts by proposingthat it should form allies with Britain in an effort of battlingGermany.
Secondly,the document succeeded in propelling the United States to globalinvolvement by proposing strategies that would see the Americannation gain advantage in the act. Luce made proposals for the UnitedStates to replace Britain in the international platform as a worldleader and to completely transform the existing policies and systemsof international relations. To be able to do this, the United Stateswas to submit global applications of the American principles.Moreover, Luce had so much faith in the United Statestransformational ideas that he argued that it had the moral right andobligation ofusingits economic position as well as its military system8.These were aimed at promoting and advocating for ideals of freedomand bring about democracy to the global communities. Therefore,Luce’s vision contributed significantly to the United States globalinvolvement, by causing amendments of United States traditionalforeign policy.
Inaddition, the United States had involved itself to global matters tospread the idea of imperialism. The United States together withother expansionist nations engaged in colony annexations by spreadingimperialistic politics, after the Spanish War. This was a newdevelopment in the United States politics that caused uproar and longstanding national debate. European countries such as Britain werepredominantly engrossed in the politics of imperialism. move was asurprising shift in the United States position on imperialism mostlydue to the fact that it had for long period opposed this idea ofimperialism that was predominantly a habit of the European countries.America had opposed this idea of imperialism also because it had oncebeen a colony itself. The famous Teller Amendment was passed by thecongress in the United States that tied the United States to itspromise of relinquishing Cuba’s Independence before the SpanishAmerican war.
Furthermore,United States had to involve itself to international matters becauseof its economical and particularly the technological advancementsthat developed its superior economy during the World War II. Moreover the world experience during the cold War had eventuallyincreased the United States as a world leader through its economic,military as well as its political factors. All these factors led tothe United States developing attempts of increasing coordination withother world nations as it saw this move as being crucial inprotecting its interests9.One the other hand, the United States had learnt of the dangers ofinternational commitments during the Cold War. The United States hadmade interventions to the then Bolshevik Revolution that wasconsuming Russia10.These interventions failed miserably and the United States wasregarded as a global leader that had failed to instill democracy inthe global platform. However, such an event did not cause for thetotal abandonment of the United States foreign policy as it wasregarded as an indicator in global involvements.
TheGreat Depression was a major factor that pushed the United States toinvolve itself to global matters, in an effort of avertinginternational threats. During this period, United States was facedwith internal problems that resulted from the Great Depression. Atthat period, international countries were required to observe theJohnson Act, which strictly prohibited loans to nations that were indefault of previous loans. United States with many other countrieswere thus prohibited from making any application. The only countrythat was eligible for application was Finland. This forced thecongress to develop a series of actions that proved that the UnitedStates had not in fact involved itself in the activities of WorldWar. In addition, the United States Senate established a committeethat was responsible for investigating any ties between the UnitedStates munitions industry and the makers of European arms11.
TheUnited States had involved itself internationally through developingdomestic measures that would not directly encourage the continuationof World War II12.This act stated that the United States was to ban any exports,specifically arms or loans to any country that was in war. Inaddition, the act also prohibited the American population from usingbelligerent vessels for travelling or arming any kinds of Americanships of merchants that did any form of trade with countries at war.This act demonstrated United States commitment to global peace byalso prohibiting the sale of any war materials on credit and evenbanned the transportation of such materials by use of United Statesvessels13.These measures were believed to be favorable steps taken by UnitedStates to protecting itself from the increasingly world events thatseemed threatening.
TheUnited States economic and political position led to the promotion ofimperialistic ideas through global involvement. The consequence ofthis burgeoning policy that was led by Imperialists and NewExpansionist contributed to a nation that was divided on whether toimplement such policies or ideas or not. Some who opposed this schemewanted to promote the idea of nations cooperating in promotingdemocracy14.This group was led by historical figures such as Mike Twain, who wereadamant to the exploitative policies that were formulated at thatperiod. On the other hand others used the religious position of theAmerican society in defending its exploitative ideals. In this, theyargued that the United States had an obligation of taking care of allGod’s children from around the world. This involved the acquisitionof other nation’s resources. This group mostly involved bigbusinesses mouthpieces who wanted to expand their economical positionin the global setting. However, during the following years open doorpolicy was established that sought to urge powerful countries likethe United States to respect other nation’s spheres of interestsespecially in Eastern Asia15.
Inaddition, another consequence to the United States global involvementwas the immigration problems. During Cold War, the United States wasplaced on the top leader in promoting healthy economy as well aspolitically correct policies that were attractive to populationsliving in other nations16.This led to massive immigration by citizens from European and Asianorigins. During that period, the immigrants came to the United Statesin search of building their lives and fulfilling the then popularAmerican dream that sought to instill economic and social confidencein them. However, this brought tension between the American societyand the immigrants in the labor sector. The immigrants were willingto work for lesser pay the same jobs that the Americans were given.This tension led to explosion of American society calling fortightening of the immigration rules to the United States.
Theother consequence of United States global involvement was the rise ofcivil societies in the labor sector. The working American societywanted the implementation of a comprehensive package that guaranteedsufficient and equal pay. They also called for improved workingconditions especially in the large manufacturing industries thatwould see their health protected. All these were happening as theUnited States was expanding its economic and political role in thelarger international platform. While the United States wasconcentrated in those expansionary policies, it had disregarded itsdomestic economic policy that was wanting. In this regard, theformation of civil movements in this context, aimed at establishingdomestic policies that was favorable and competitive in theinternational setting17.
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17 Making of America Archive, Retrieved From, <http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/m/moa> 23rd March, 2016