Week 2 Journal Entry

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Week2 Journal Entry

Week2 Journal Entry

Guidelinesfor early detection of breast cancer

Breastcancer screening using mammograms should begin at the age of 40 to 44years. It is important to adequately educate the patient in order tomake an informed choice. Women aged between 45 and 54 years regularmammogram screening of at least once every year. After 55 years, amammogram can be done once every two years or annual screening cancontinue. The screening can continue if the woman is expected to livefor at least ten years (American Cancer Society, 2013).

Guidelinesof early detection of cervical cancer

Cervicalcancer screening should start at the age of 21 years, thus it is notnecessary to test girls below the age of 21 years. Pap test isrecommended for women between the ages of 21 and 29 years every threeyears. Women between the age of 30 and 65 years require a combinationPap test and HPV test every five years, but a Pap test every threeyears is recommended. Women aged 65 years and above who had regularnegative tests require no screening (American Cancer Society, 2013).

Challengesassociated with the guidelines

Despitethe existence of these guidelines, which are aimed at ensuring thatearly detection of cancers, the effectiveness is relatively low.Usually, the patient is expected to make a decision to beginscreening. The main challenge is that many patients are reluctant tobegin cancer screening (Wardle et al, 2015).


Canceris one of the most important health care problems in the modernsociety. However, the large number of deaths associated with breastand cervical cancer can be reduced through early diagnosis. Earlydiagnosis is aided by screening and test to detect the disease at theearly stages before the first symptoms are visible (Green et al,2013).


AmericanCancer Society. (2013). AmericanCancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer.Retrieved fromhttp://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/cancerscreeningguidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer

Green,J. Tones, K. Cross R. &amp Woodall, J. (2015). Healthpromotion: Planning and strategies(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wardle,J. et al (2015). Screening for Prevention and Early Diagnosis ofCancer. AmericanPsychologist.70(2): 119-133.